High-Frequency Trading in Crypto: Advantages

It’s like high frequency trading, with extra steps. Not unlike all of cryptocurrency.

It’s like high frequency trading, with extra steps. Not unlike all of cryptocurrency. submitted by taxonomicnomenclatur to Buttcoin [link] [comments]

High Frequency Trading Tutorial — Install Your First Bot - Sales4K

fintech #trading #algotrading #quantitative #quant #hft #cryptocurrency

High Frequency Trading Tutorial — Install Your First BotHigh frequency trading means using machine and algorithms to trade. There are some obvious upsides like trading in your sleep and not being conditioned by emotions. On the other hand you have to know what you are doing, you are trusting a machine with your money.What You Will NeedIn this quick tutorial you will install your first trading bot. Don’t worry, you will be able to do a dry run without any money. You will need an account on bittrex.com though. Just go on the website and create your account, it won’t take long. Other than this we are using Telegram. Telegram is like WhatsApp but better: for once, it allows us to create a chatbot. We will use this as a textual interface to interact with our trade bot.Install the DependenciesThis bot is written in Python 3.6. It will use SQLite to store data, TA-Lib for technical analysis of the market. If you are on macOS you can install everything with brew: brew install python3 ta-lib s..... Continue reading at: https://www.sales4k.com/blockchain/high-frequency-trading-bot-tutorial/
submitted by silahian to quant_hft [link] [comments]

What You Need To Know About High Frequency Trading In The Cryptocurrency World - Crypto Daily™

fintech #trading #algotrading #quantitative #quant

What You Need To Know About High Frequency Trading In The Cryptocurrency World High Frequency Trading, or HFT for short has been around ever since stock exchanges first introduced computers where they ported all of their information. This allowed for stock trading to take a much faster and global approach, thus bringing us the economics of the modern world. cryptocurrenciesWhen it comes to crypto tradingBitcoinWhat is High Frequency Trading? HFT is a term for an algorithm that is designed to catch trades as they are being processed and try to find the most profitable moment of entry. No, it’s not about determining the support and resistance levels for specific cryptocurrencies. It’s about finding out how much a specific buyer is ready to pay for a single coin.
cryptoHFT algorithms.
This basic overview is not enough to truly understand the technology, therefore let’s try to imagine a case study to better see the process of using HFT. In order to do so, we need to identify three.....
Continue reading at: https://cryptodaily.co.uk/2019/11/what-you-need-to-know-about-high-frequency-trading-in-the-cryptocurrency-world
submitted by silahian to quant_hft [link] [comments]

What You Need To Know About High Frequency Trading In The Cryptocurrency World

submitted by n4bb to CoinPath [link] [comments]

New High Frequency, Zero Trading Fee Cryptocurrency Exchange Cobinhood Goes Live

New High Frequency, Zero Trading Fee Cryptocurrency Exchange Cobinhood Goes Live submitted by hornblass to fintech [link] [comments]

High-Frequency Trading Firms Enter Cryptocurrency Markets

High-Frequency Trading Firms Enter Cryptocurrency Markets submitted by hotrodfantasy to CryptocurrencyNC [link] [comments]

High-Frequency Trading Firms Enter Cryptocurrency Markets

High-Frequency Trading Firms Enter Cryptocurrency Markets submitted by HiroJa to DogeNews [link] [comments]

New High Frequency, Zero Trading Fee Cryptocurrency Exchange Cobinhood Goes Live - Anyone tried this exchange? Zero fees BTC/USD

submitted by BitcoinAllBot to BitcoinAll [link] [comments]

A high frequency, market making cryptocurrency trading platform in node.js

submitted by shad0proxy to node [link] [comments]

Bitscalper is an automated high frequency trading tool operating with the novel Bitcoin cryptocurrency

submitted by bitscalper to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Automate BTC trades via high frequency or long term trades with innovative cryptocurrency software

Automate BTC trades via high frequency or long term trades with innovative cryptocurrency software submitted by btcforguld to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

algo trading cryptocurrencies

tldr; I'm an algorithmic cryptocurrency trader with my own cross-exchange trading platform that is performing well(ish) and I'm looking for ideas, partners, investors etc to help me push it forward.
I've been trading cryptocurrencies programmatically since 2016 with some success. For about a year I made a modest living executing arbitrage trades across mostly fiat pairs using a bot hurredly hacked together in my spare time. As time went on the margins got lower and lower and eventually I turned the system off as it just wasn't profitable enough. I wasn't sure what to do, so I went back to my career in finance while I considered my options.
Skip to the present day and I have rebuilt everything from scratch. I now have a cloud hosted (GCP), fully functional trading platform and have some new algos that are running unsupervised 24x7. The platform is far from finished of course, and like all non-trivial solutions to non-trivial problems: it has bugs, both scaling and performance problems and has a number of unfinished features. However, it does work, and cruically: it's stable, performant and reliable. In the past 12 months it has traded over $4m (roughly 40,000 executed orders and 100,000 fill events), and 99.9% of these orders are generated by my algos.
I don't do arbitrage any more, though I may resurrect that algo as my exchange fees come down. My new algos are a little more sophisticated and they seem to reliably make a small profit (between 0.1% and 0.4%). I have a number of ideas cooking away for more algos, I'm just finding it difficult to manage my time. Both the platform and the algos need a lot of work and I only have one pair of hands.
I'm actively trading on 18 exchanges and adding a new one roughly every couple of weeks. The system records and reports every order, trade, balance change, transfer, fee etc in real time using the APIs offered by each exchange. Each new exchange presents a new set of problems. Some are easy to integrate and have fairly sensible APIs, but some definitely do not. Some exchanges have helpful support, some defiantly do not. Some of the APIs change over time, some do not (although sometimes I wish they would). The more exchanges I add the more difficult it is to keep the system behaving in an rational manner. Some exchanges are so bad, though a combination of API and support, that I've had to blacklist them.
With every exchange so far, and for varying reasons, I've had to implement both the streaming (websocket / fix) AND REST APIs in order to get a working solution. Exchanges don't typically do a great job with their APIs - some are astonishingly poor IMO, and have been for years. Some reputable exchanges do completely miss some really quite basic features. Some are internally inconsistent with things like error reporting. They all report fees differently and the way they charge fees varies greatly (some don't report the trade fees at all). Each exchange of course has it's own symbols for currencies and markets, and they also change over time (typically as a result of forked blockchains: BCC -> BCH -> BCHABC...). Some use different symbols between their own REST and websocket APIs. It's not uncommon for exchanges to delist markets, but surprisingly common for them it ignore the impact on users when they do so. It's also not uncommon for exchanges to delete your old orders after they close, but some exchanges will delete your trade data too after a relatively short period of time (good luck doing your tax returns). They all employ different strategies for rate limiting. Some have helpful metadata API calls, but most don't. And of course the API docs are often either missing, misleading or blatantly incorrect. Exchanges will routinely close markets, or suspend deposits and/or withdrawals of a certain currency (which has a huge impact on prices). The good ones with have API calls that reports this data, but there are very few good ones. I could go on but you get the picture.
My application currently trades around 50-100k USD per day, and I'm planning/hoping to scale this up to 1m USD per day in a year from now.
At any one moment it's managing about 100 to 300 concurrent open orders. The order management and trade reporting is the thing I've probably spent most time on. Having an accurate and timely order management system is vital to any trading system. My order sizes are relatively small and I have a pretty solid risk management system that prevents the algos from going crazy and building up large unwanted exposures. Having said that, the number of things that can go wrong is large, and when things do go wrong they tend to go VERY wrong VERY quickly... usually while I'm out walking the dog.
I measure and record pretty much every aspect of the system so that I know when and where the time is being spent. Auditing is key. My system isn't what you'd call lightning fast right now. I don't think you would want to use it for high frequency trading. But I firmly believe that knowing where the time is being spent is over half the battle, so that's what I'm focusing on right now. Reducing latency and increasing throughput are always in the back of my mind, and although I've never intentionally designed the system to be fast, I make sure not to do anything that would needlessly slow it down.
The platform itself is built on asynchronous messaging. It is backed by a cloud hosted SQL database and (apart from the database) all components have redundancy. It's running on a hand made cluster of 12 low cost servers, but much of the workload is distributed to cloud functions. It costs me a few hundred USD per month but as I scale up I expect that to scale up accordingly.
I have a fairly basic front end (I'm not a UI person at all) built in react and firebase that I use to monitor and report the state of the system. It needs A LOT of work, but functionally it does what I need right now. I can see my orders, trades, portfolio, transfers etc in real time and I can browse and chart the market data that the system is collecting. One feature it has that I am very pleased with is the trade entry form for manual trading (its surprisingly nuanced).
I only trade on spot markets right now, so other markets (derivates, lending etc) are not supported. Until I have an idea for a algo that trades in these markets I won't be adding them. And currently I only trade on the old fashioned, centralised exchanges.
I'm writing this because I'm looking for ideas, partners, investors or even customers. I think the system has value, and it's time to move to the next level, whatever that may be. If you have an idea for an algo, adding them to the system is trivial now and if we could work out some sort of profit sharing I'd be keen to discuss it (and happy to sign an NDA of course). Feel free to reach out to me privately if you want to discuss anything.
submitted by iampomo to algotrading [link] [comments]

What is DeFi and how Radix will improve it

What is DeFi and how Radix will improve it

https://preview.redd.it/daz3jw7jsji51.png?width=600&format=png&auto=webp&s=f6ff20d65efcba61bd504c7f74b75d3bd99d68f5
Decentralized finance (DeFi) has been the latest buzzword in the crypto industry for some time now, and is growing steadily.
DeFi is financial instruments in the form of services and applications built on the blockchain. The main task of decentralized finance is to become an alternative to the banking sector and replace the traditional technologies of the current financial system with open source protocols. That is, open access to decentralized lending and new investment platforms for a large number of people. And let them receive passive income from crypto assets, as well as save on fees for transfers, loans and deposits.
The argument for decentralized finance (DeFi) has been made even more pressing by allegations of misuse of funds against a centrally controlled cryptocurrency.
Noting the high potential of DeFi, the Radix team is currently working hard on its DeFi solution that will take DeFi technology to the next level.
DeFi advantages and disadvantages
Despite the fact that the decentralized application sector is just developing, there are already quite a few benefits. The main thing is that any user can get one or another financial service, for example, lending, bypassing the bank. Decentralized landing protocols minimize risks and open access to borrowed funds 24/7. New products are especially relevant for borrowers from countries with expensive bank loans.
The procedure for creating your own digital asset and its introduction to the market has become noticeably easier and has become available to almost everyone. Payment processing does not last for several days, but a maximum of a couple of hours, interest rates and commissions have become much lower. Also, users have new ways to make money on cryptocurrency.
For developers, the simplicity of creating applications becomes a clear advantage due to transparency and open source, in addition, projects in the decentralized finance sector can be developed on any platform that interacts with smart contracts.
Of course, DeFi is not without its drawbacks:
  1. Since most DeFi projects are built on the Ethereum platform, they are not very suitable for high-frequency trading as they are limited in terms of scalability.
  2. Due to sharp jumps in the load on the Ethereum network, transaction fees can rise sharply, making high-frequency trading less affordable.
  3. Poor security. There is a known case of a project called Bancor that used to rely on an authorization contract type to handle ERC20. However, there was an error in the contract that allowed the contract to transfer tokens from the user's wallet to any address specified by the hacker after the user was authorized, resulting in the loss of nearly $ 100,000.
  4. Not friendly to developers.
How will Radix make Defi better?
The radix team is currently working hard to offer the best DeFi platform, addressing the above DeFi disadvantages on the Ethereum platform and offering:
1.Better safety:
Reducing the number of hacks, exploits and failures of smart contract applications. This became possible thanks to The Radix form of smart contracts, Components.
2. Build DeFi dApps faster
This is made possible by the Component Catalog. This technology is a register of already released components Components in the Catalog are like inactive templates or blueprints that anyone may use to create multiple active Components patterned after the original in the Catalog. It will make application development much easier and faster
3. Development of a decentralized developer community
The best platform Defi requires a strong developer community. Therefore Radix offers the Developer Royalty System program. The essence of this program is that developers can set royalties for using the components they create. Royalty payments are based on the actual utility that the Component brings to the network.
4. Unlimited scalability.
Radix uses build technologies for unlimited scalability without compromising security, decentralization, or composability. This is made possible thanks to the unique Cerberus consensus algorithm developed by the Radix team. Cerberus is a new consensus algorithm designed specifically for large, diverse networks of simultaneous applications and transactions.
Unlimited scalability will make transaction fees cheap.
Summing up the above, we can conclude that DeFi technology is very promising and necessary. However, at the moment it is at an early stage of development and has a number of problems, including those related to the Ethereum network. Radix's DeFi solution aims to eliminate them and make DeFi technology better.
Learn more about Radix:
Website: https://www.radixdlt.com/
Twitter: https://twitter.com/RadixDLT
Telegram: https://t.me/radix_dlt
submitted by kudo94 to Radix [link] [comments]

Scaling Reddit Community Points with Arbitrum Rollup: a piece of cake

Scaling Reddit Community Points with Arbitrum Rollup: a piece of cake
https://preview.redd.it/b80c05tnb9e51.jpg?width=2550&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=850282c1a3962466ed44f73886dae1c8872d0f31
Submitted for consideration to The Great Reddit Scaling Bake-Off
Baked by the pastry chefs at Offchain Labs
Please send questions or comments to [[email protected] ](mailto:[email protected])
1. Overview
We're excited to submit Arbitrum Rollup for consideration to The Great Reddit Scaling Bake-Off. Arbitrum Rollup is the only Ethereum scaling solution that supports arbitrary smart contracts without compromising on Ethereum's security or adding points of centralization. For Reddit, this means that Arbitrum can not only scale the minting and transfer of Community Points, but it can foster a creative ecosystem built around Reddit Community Points enabling points to be used in a wide variety of third party applications. That's right -- you can have your cake and eat it too!
Arbitrum Rollup isn't just Ethereum-style. Its Layer 2 transactions are byte-for-byte identical to Ethereum, which means Ethereum users can continue to use their existing addresses and wallets, and Ethereum developers can continue to use their favorite toolchains and development environments out-of-the-box with Arbitrum. Coupling Arbitrum’s tooling-compatibility with its trustless asset interoperability, Reddit not only can scale but can onboard the entire Ethereum community at no cost by giving them the same experience they already know and love (well, certainly know).
To benchmark how Arbitrum can scale Reddit Community Points, we launched the Reddit contracts on an Arbitrum Rollup chain. Since Arbitrum provides full Solidity support, we didn't have to rewrite the Reddit contracts or try to mimic their functionality using an unfamiliar paradigm. Nope, none of that. We launched the Reddit contracts unmodified on Arbitrum Rollup complete with support for minting and distributing points. Like every Arbitrum Rollup chain, the chain included a bridge interface in which users can transfer Community Points or any other asset between the L1 and L2 chains. Arbitrum Rollup chains also support dynamic contract loading, which would allow third-party developers to launch custom ecosystem apps that integrate with Community Points on the very same chain that runs the Reddit contracts.
1.1 Why Ethereum
Perhaps the most exciting benefit of distributing Community Points using a blockchain is the ability to seamlessly port points to other applications and use them in a wide variety of contexts. Applications may include simple transfers such as a restaurant that allows Redditors to spend points on drinks. Or it may include complex smart contracts -- such as placing Community Points as a wager for a multiparty game or as collateral in a financial contract.
The common denominator between all of the fun uses of Reddit points is that it needs a thriving ecosystem of both users and developers, and the Ethereum blockchain is perhaps the only smart contract platform with significant adoption today. While many Layer 1 blockchains boast lower cost or higher throughput than the Ethereum blockchain, more often than not, these attributes mask the reality of little usage, weaker security, or both.
Perhaps another platform with significant usage will rise in the future. But today, Ethereum captures the mindshare of the blockchain community, and for Community Points to provide the most utility, the Ethereum blockchain is the natural choice.
1.2 Why Arbitrum
While Ethereum's ecosystem is unmatched, the reality is that fees are high and capacity is too low to support the scale of Reddit Community Points. Enter Arbitrum. Arbitrum Rollup provides all of the ecosystem benefits of Ethereum, but with orders of magnitude more capacity and at a fraction of the cost of native Ethereum smart contracts. And most of all, we don't change the experience from users. They continue to use the same wallets, addresses, languages, and tools.
Arbitrum Rollup is not the only solution that can scale payments, but it is the only developed solution that can scale both payments and arbitrary smart contracts trustlessly, which means that third party users can build highly scalable add-on apps that can be used without withdrawing money from the Rollup chain. If you believe that Reddit users will want to use their Community Points in smart contracts--and we believe they will--then it makes the most sense to choose a single scaling solution that can support the entire ecosystem, eliminating friction for users.
We view being able to run smart contracts in the same scaling solution as fundamentally critical since if there's significant demand in running smart contracts from Reddit's ecosystem, this would be a load on Ethereum and would itself require a scaling solution. Moreover, having different scaling solutions for the minting/distribution/spending of points and for third party apps would be burdensome for users as they'd have to constantly shuffle their Points back and forth.
2. Arbitrum at a glance
Arbitrum Rollup has a unique value proposition as it offers a combination of features that no other scaling solution achieves. Here we highlight its core attributes.
Decentralized. Arbitrum Rollup is as decentralized as Ethereum. Unlike some other Layer 2 scaling projects, Arbitrum Rollup doesn't have any centralized components or centralized operators who can censor users or delay transactions. Even in non-custodial systems, centralized components provide a risk as the operators are generally incentivized to increase their profit by extracting rent from users often in ways that severely degrade user experience. Even if centralized operators are altruistic, centralized components are subject to hacking, coercion, and potential liability.
Massive Scaling. Arbitrum achieves order of magnitude scaling over Ethereum's L1 smart contracts. Our software currently supports 453 transactions-per-second for basic transactions (at 1616 Ethereum gas per tx). We have a lot of room left to optimize (e.g. aggregating signatures), and over the next several months capacity will increase significantly. As described in detail below, Arbitrum can easily support and surpass Reddit's anticipated initial load, and its capacity will continue to improve as Reddit's capacity needs grow.
Low cost. The cost of running Arbitrum Rollup is quite low compared to L1 Ethereum and other scaling solutions such as those based on zero-knowledge proofs. Layer 2 fees are low, fixed, and predictable and should not be overly burdensome for Reddit to cover. Nobody needs to use special equipment or high-end machines. Arbitrum requires validators, which is a permissionless role that can be run on any reasonable on-line machine. Although anybody can act as a validator, in order to protect against a “tragedy of the commons” and make sure reputable validators are participating, we support a notion of “invited validators” that are compensated for their costs. In general, users pay (low) fees to cover the invited validators’ costs, but we imagine that Reddit may cover this cost for its users. See more on the costs and validator options below.
Ethereum Developer Experience. Not only does Arbitrum support EVM smart contracts, but the developer experience is identical to that of L1 Ethereum contracts and fully compatible with Ethereum tooling. Developers can port existing Solidity apps or write new ones using their favorite and familiar toolchains (e.g. Truffle, Buidler). There are no new languages or coding paradigms to learn.
Ethereum wallet compatibility. Just as in Ethereum, Arbitrum users need only hold keys, but do not have to store any coin history or additional data to protect or access their funds. Since Arbitrum transactions are semantically identical to Ethereum L1 transactions, existing Ethereum users can use their existing Ethereum keys with their existing wallet software such as Metamask.
Token interoperability. Users can easily transfer their ETH, ERC-20 and ERC-721 tokens between Ethereum and the Arbitrum Rollup chain. As we explain in detail below, it is possible to mint tokens in L2 that can subsequently be withdrawn and recognized by the L1 token contract.
Fast finality. Transactions complete with the same finality time as Ethereum L1 (and it's possible to get faster finality guarantees by trading away trust assumptions; see the Arbitrum Rollup whitepaper for details).
Non-custodial. Arbitrum Rollup is a non-custodial scaling solution, so users control their funds/points and neither Reddit nor anyone else can ever access or revoke points held by users.
Censorship Resistant. Since it's completely decentralized, and the Arbitrum protocol guarantees progress trustlessly, Arbitrum Rollup is just as censorship-proof as Ethereum.
Block explorer. The Arbitrum Rollup block explorer allows users to view and analyze transactions on the Rollup chain.
Limitations
Although this is a bake-off, we're not going to sugar coat anything. Arbitrum Rollup, like any Optimistic Rollup protocol, does have one limitation, and that's the delay on withdrawals.
As for the concrete length of the delay, we've done a good deal of internal modeling and have blogged about this as well. Our current modeling suggests a 3-hour delay is sufficient (but as discussed in the linked post there is a tradeoff space between the length of the challenge period and the size of the validators’ deposit).
Note that this doesn't mean that the chain is delayed for three hours. Arbitrum Rollup supports pipelining of execution, which means that validators can keep building new states even while previous ones are “in the pipeline” for confirmation. As the challenge delays expire for each update, a new state will be confirmed (read more about this here).
So activity and progress on the chain are not delayed by the challenge period. The only thing that's delayed is the consummation of withdrawals. Recall though that any single honest validator knows immediately (at the speed of L1 finality) which state updates are correct and can guarantee that they will eventually be confirmed, so once a valid withdrawal has been requested on-chain, every honest party knows that the withdrawal will definitely happen. There's a natural place here for a liquidity market in which a validator (or someone who trusts a validator) can provide withdrawal loans for a small interest fee. This is a no-risk business for them as they know which withdrawals will be confirmed (and can force their confirmation trustlessly no matter what anyone else does) but are just waiting for on-chain finality.
3. The recipe: How Arbitrum Rollup works
For a description of the technical components of Arbitrum Rollup and how they interact to create a highly scalable protocol with a developer experience that is identical to Ethereum, please refer to the following documents:
Arbitrum Rollup Whitepaper
Arbitrum academic paper (describes a previous version of Arbitrum)
4. Developer docs and APIs
For full details about how to set up and interact with an Arbitrum Rollup chain or validator, please refer to our developer docs, which can be found at https://developer.offchainlabs.com/.
Note that the Arbitrum version described on that site is older and will soon be replaced by the version we are entering in Reddit Bake-Off, which is still undergoing internal testing before public release.
5. Who are the validators?
As with any Layer 2 protocol, advancing the protocol correctly requires at least one validator (sometimes called block producers) that is honest and available. A natural question is: who are the validators?
Recall that the validator set for an Arbitrum chain is open and permissionless; anyone can start or stop validating at will. (A useful analogy is to full nodes on an L1 chain.) But we understand that even though anyone can participate, Reddit may want to guarantee that highly reputable nodes are validating their chain. Reddit may choose to validate the chain themselves and/or hire third-party validators.To this end, we have begun building a marketplace for validator-for-hire services so that dapp developers can outsource validation services to reputable nodes with high up-time. We've announced a partnership in which Chainlink nodes will provide Arbitrum validation services, and we expect to announce more partnerships shortly with other blockchain infrastructure providers.
Although there is no requirement that validators are paid, Arbitrum’s economic model tracks validators’ costs (e.g. amount of computation and storage) and can charge small fees on user transactions, using a gas-type system, to cover those costs. Alternatively, a single party such as Reddit can agree to cover the costs of invited validators.
6. Reddit Contract Support
Since Arbitrum contracts and transactions are byte-for-byte compatible with Ethereum, supporting the Reddit contracts is as simple as launching them on an Arbitrum chain.
Minting. Arbitrum Rollup supports hybrid L1/L2 tokens which can be minted in L2 and then withdrawn onto the L1. An L1 contract at address A can make a special call to the EthBridge which deploys a "buddy contract" to the same address A on an Arbitrum chain. Since it's deployed at the same address, users can know that the L2 contract is the authorized "buddy" of the L1 contract on the Arbitrum chain.
For minting, the L1 contract is a standard ERC-20 contract which mints and burns tokens when requested by the L2 contract. It is paired with an ERC-20 contract in L2 which mints tokens based on whatever programmer provided minting facility is desired and burns tokens when they are withdrawn from the rollup chain. Given this base infrastructure, Arbitrum can support any smart contract based method for minting tokens in L2, and indeed we directly support Reddit's signature/claim based minting in L2.
Batch minting. What's better than a mint cookie? A whole batch! In addition to supporting Reddit’s current minting/claiming scheme, we built a second minting design, which we believe outperforms the signature/claim system in many scenarios.
In the current system, Reddit periodically issues signed statements to users, who then take those statements to the blockchain to claim their tokens. An alternative approach would have Reddit directly submit the list of users/amounts to the blockchain and distribute the tokens to the users without the signature/claim process.
To optimize the cost efficiency of this approach, we designed an application-specific compression scheme to minimize the size of the batch distribution list. We analyzed the data from Reddit's previous distributions and found that the data is highly compressible since token amounts are small and repeated, and addresses appear multiple times. Our function groups transactions by size, and replaces previously-seen addresses with a shorter index value. We wrote client code to compress the data, wrote a Solidity decompressing function, and integrated that function into Reddit’s contract running on Arbitrum.
When we ran the compression function on the previous Reddit distribution data, we found that we could compress batched minting data down to to 11.8 bytes per minting event (averaged over a 6-month trace of Reddit’s historical token grants)compared with roughly 174 bytes of on-chain data needed for the signature claim approach to minting (roughly 43 for an RLP-encoded null transaction + 65 for Reddit's signature + 65 for the user's signature + roughly 8 for the number of Points) .
The relative benefit of the two approaches with respect to on-chain call data cost depends on the percentage of users that will actually claim their tokens on chain. With the above figures, batch minting will be cheaper if roughly 5% of users redeem their claims. We stress that our compression scheme is not Arbitrum-specific and would be beneficial in any general-purpose smart contract platform.
8. Benchmarks and costs
In this section, we give the full costs of operating the Reddit contracts on an Arbitrum Rollup chain including the L1 gas costs for the Rollup chain, the costs of computation and storage for the L2 validators as well as the capital lockup requirements for staking.
Arbitrum Rollup is still on testnet, so we did not run mainnet benchmarks. Instead, we measured the L1 gas cost and L2 workload for Reddit operations on Arbitrum and calculated the total cost assuming current Ethereum gas prices. As noted below in detail, our measurements do not assume that Arbitrum is consuming the entire capacity of Ethereum. We will present the details of our model now, but for full transparency you can also play around with it yourself and adjust the parameters, by copying the spreadsheet found here.
Our cost model is based on measurements of Reddit’s contracts, running unmodified (except for the addition of a batch minting function) on Arbitrum Rollup on top of Ethereum.
On the distribution of transactions and frequency of assertions. Reddit's instructions specify the following minimum parameters that submissions should support:
Over a 5 day period, your scaling PoC should be able to handle:
  • 100,000 point claims (minting & distributing points)
  • 25,000 subscriptions
  • 75,000 one-off points burning
  • 100,000 transfers
We provide the full costs of operating an Arbitrum Rollup chain with this usage under the assumption that tokens are minted or granted to users in batches, but other transactions are uniformly distributed over the 5 day period. Unlike some other submissions, we do not make unrealistic assumptions that all operations can be submitted in enormous batches. We assume that batch minting is done in batches that use only a few percent on an L1 block’s gas, and that other operations come in evenly over time and are submitted in batches, with one batch every five minutes to keep latency reasonable. (Users are probably already waiting for L1 finality, which takes at least that long to achieve.)
We note that assuming that there are only 300,000 transactions that arrive uniformly over the 5 day period will make our benchmark numbers lower, but we believe that this will reflect the true cost of running the system. To see why, say that batches are submitted every five minutes (20 L1 blocks) and there's a fixed overhead of c bytes of calldata per batch, the cost of which will get amortized over all transactions executed in that batch. Assume that each individual transaction adds a marginal cost of t. Lastly assume the capacity of the scaling system is high enough that it can support all of Reddit's 300,000 transactions within a single 20-block batch (i.e. that there is more than c + 300,000*t byes of calldata available in 20 blocks).
Consider what happens if c, the per-batch overhead, is large (which it is in some systems, but not in Arbitrum). In the scenario that transactions actually arrive at the system's capacity and each batch is full, then c gets amortized over 300,000 transactions. But if we assume that the system is not running at capacity--and only receives 300,000 transactions arriving uniformly over 5 days-- then each 20-block assertion will contain about 200 transactions, and thus each transaction will pay a nontrivial cost due to c.
We are aware that other proposals presented scaling numbers assuming that 300,000 transactions arrived at maximum capacity and was executed in a single mega-transaction, but according to our estimates, for at least one such report, this led to a reported gas price that was 2-3 orders of magnitude lower than it would have been assuming uniform arrival. We make more realistic batching assumptions, and we believe Arbitrum compares well when batch sizes are realistic.
Our model. Our cost model includes several sources of cost:
  • L1 gas costs: This is the cost of posting transactions as calldata on the L1 chain, as well as the overhead associated with each batch of transactions, and the L1 cost of settling transactions in the Arbitrum protocol.
  • Validator’s staking costs: In normal operation, one validator will need to be staked. The stake is assumed to be 0.2% of the total value of the chain (which is assumed to be $1 per user who is eligible to claim points). The cost of staking is the interest that could be earned on the money if it were not staked.
  • Validator computation and storage: Every validator must do computation to track the chain’s processing of transactions, and must maintain storage to keep track of the contracts’ EVM storage. The cost of computation and storage are estimated based on measurements, with the dollar cost of resources based on Amazon Web Services pricing.
It’s clear from our modeling that the predominant cost is for L1 calldata. This will probably be true for any plausible rollup-based system.
Our model also shows that Arbitrum can scale to workloads much larger than Reddit’s nominal workload, without exhausting L1 or L2 resources. The scaling bottleneck will ultimately be calldata on the L1 chain. We believe that cost could be reduced substantially if necessary by clever encoding of data. (In our design any compression / decompression of L2 transaction calldata would be done by client software and L2 programs, never by an L1 contract.)
9. Status of Arbitrum Rollup
Arbitrum Rollup is live on Ethereum testnet. All of the code written to date including everything included in the Reddit demo is open source and permissively licensed under the Apache V2 license. The first testnet version of Arbitrum Rollup was released on testnet in February. Our current internal version, which we used to benchmark the Reddit contracts, will be released soon and will be a major upgrade.
Both the Arbitrum design as well as the implementation are heavily audited by independent third parties. The Arbitrum academic paper was published at USENIX Security, a top-tier peer-reviewed academic venue. For the Arbitrum software, we have engaged Trail of Bits for a security audit, which is currently ongoing, and we are committed to have a clean report before launching on Ethereum mainnet.
10. Reddit Universe Arbitrum Rollup Chain
The benchmarks described in this document were all measured using the latest internal build of our software. When we release the new software upgrade publicly we will launch a Reddit Universe Arbitrum Rollup chain as a public demo, which will contain the Reddit contracts as well as a Uniswap instance and a Connext Hub, demonstrating how Community Points can be integrated into third party apps. We will also allow members of the public to dynamically launch ecosystem contracts. We at Offchain Labs will cover the validating costs for the Reddit Universe public demo.
If the folks at Reddit would like to evaluate our software prior to our public demo, please email us at [email protected] and we'd be more than happy to provide early access.
11. Even more scaling: Arbitrum Sidechains
Rollups are an excellent approach to scaling, and we are excited about Arbitrum Rollup which far surpasses Reddit's scaling needs. But looking forward to Reddit's eventual goal of supporting hundreds of millions of users, there will likely come a time when Reddit needs more scaling than any Rollup protocol can provide.
While Rollups greatly reduce costs, they don't break the linear barrier. That is, all transactions have an on-chain footprint (because all calldata must be posted on-chain), albeit a far smaller one than on native Ethereum, and the L1 limitations end up being the bottleneck for capacity and cost. Since Ethereum has limited capacity, this linear use of on-chain resources means that costs will eventually increase superlinearly with traffic.
The good news is that we at Offchain Labs have a solution in our roadmap that can satisfy this extreme-scaling setting as well: Arbitrum AnyTrust Sidechains. Arbitrum Sidechains are similar to Arbitrum Rollup, but deviate in that they name a permissioned set of validators. When a chain’s validators agree off-chain, they can greatly reduce the on-chain footprint of the protocol and require almost no data to be put on-chain. When validators can't reach unanimous agreement off-chain, the protocol reverts to Arbitrum Rollup. Technically, Arbitrum Sidechains can be viewed as a hybrid between state channels and Rollup, switching back and forth as necessary, and combining the performance and cost that state channels can achieve in the optimistic case, with the robustness of Rollup in other cases. The core technical challenge is how to switch seamlessly between modes and how to guarantee that security is maintained throughout.
Arbitrum Sidechains break through this linear barrier, while still maintaining a high level of security and decentralization. Arbitrum Sidechains provide the AnyTrust guarantee, which says that as long as any one validator is honest and available (even if you don't know which one will be), the L2 chain is guaranteed to execute correctly according to its code and guaranteed to make progress. Unlike in a state channel, offchain progress does not require unanimous consent, and liveness is preserved as long as there is a single honest validator.
Note that the trust model for Arbitrum Sidechains is much stronger than for typical BFT-style chains which introduce a consensus "voting" protocols among a small permissioned group of validators. BFT-based protocols require a supermajority (more than 2/3) of validators to agree. In Arbitrum Sidechains, by contrast, all you need is a single honest validator to achieve guaranteed correctness and progress. Notice that in Arbitrum adding validators strictly increases security since the AnyTrust guarantee provides correctness as long as any one validator is honest and available. By contrast, in BFT-style protocols, adding nodes can be dangerous as a coalition of dishonest nodes can break the protocol.
Like Arbitrum Rollup, the developer and user experiences for Arbitrum Sidechains will be identical to that of Ethereum. Reddit would be able to choose a large and diverse set of validators, and all that they would need to guarantee to break through the scaling barrier is that a single one of them will remain honest.
We hope to have Arbitrum Sidechains in production in early 2021, and thus when Reddit reaches the scale that surpasses the capacity of Rollups, Arbitrum Sidechains will be waiting and ready to help.
While the idea to switch between channels and Rollup to get the best of both worlds is conceptually simple, getting the details right and making sure that the switch does not introduce any attack vectors is highly non-trivial and has been the subject of years of our research (indeed, we were working on this design for years before the term Rollup was even coined).
12. How Arbitrum compares
We include a comparison to several other categories as well as specific projects when appropriate. and explain why we believe that Arbitrum is best suited for Reddit's purposes. We focus our attention on other Ethereum projects.
Payment only Rollups. Compared to Arbitrum Rollup, ZK-Rollups and other Rollups that only support token transfers have several disadvantages:
  • As outlined throughout the proposal, we believe that the entire draw of Ethereum is in its rich smart contracts support which is simply not achievable with today's zero-knowledge proof technology. Indeed, scaling with a ZK-Rollup will add friction to the deployment of smart contracts that interact with Community Points as users will have to withdraw their coins from the ZK-Rollup and transfer them to a smart contract system (like Arbitrum). The community will be best served if Reddit builds on a platform that has built-in, frictionless smart-contract support.
  • All other Rollup protocols of which we are aware employ a centralized operator. While it's true that users retain custody of their coins, the centralized operator can often profit from censoring, reordering, or delaying transactions. A common misconception is that since they're non-custodial protocols, a centralized sequencer does not pose a risk but this is incorrect as the sequencer can wreak havoc or shake down users for side payments without directly stealing funds.
  • Sidechain type protocols can eliminate some of these issues, but they are not trustless. Instead, they require trust in some quorum of a committee, often requiring two-third of the committee to be honest, compared to rollup protocols like Arbitrum that require only a single honest party. In addition, not all sidechain type protocols have committees that are diverse, or even non-centralized, in practice.
  • Plasma-style protocols have a centralized operator and do not support general smart contracts.
13. Concluding Remarks
While it's ultimately up to the judges’ palate, we believe that Arbitrum Rollup is the bakeoff choice that Reddit kneads. We far surpass Reddit's specified workload requirement at present, have much room to optimize Arbitrum Rollup in the near term, and have a clear path to get Reddit to hundreds of millions of users. Furthermore, we are the only project that gives developers and users the identical interface as the Ethereum blockchain and is fully interoperable and tooling-compatible, and we do this all without any new trust assumptions or centralized components.
But no matter how the cookie crumbles, we're glad to have participated in this bake-off and we thank you for your consideration.
About Offchain Labs
Offchain Labs, Inc. is a venture-funded New York company that spun out of Princeton University research, and is building the Arbitrum platform to usher in the next generation of scalable, interoperable, and compatible smart contracts. Offchain Labs is backed by Pantera Capital, Compound VC, Coinbase Ventures, and others.
Leadership Team
Ed Felten
Ed Felten is Co-founder and Chief Scientist at Offchain Labs. He is on leave from Princeton University, where he is the Robert E. Kahn Professor of Computer Science and Public Affairs. From 2015 to 2017 he served at the White House as Deputy United States Chief Technology Officer and senior advisor to the President. He is an ACM Fellow and member of the National Academy of Engineering. Outside of work, he is an avid runner, cook, and L.A. Dodgers fan.
Steven Goldfeder
Steven Goldfeder is Co-founder and Chief Executive Officer at Offchain Labs. He holds a PhD from Princeton University, where he worked at the intersection of cryptography and cryptocurrencies including threshold cryptography, zero-knowledge proof systems, and post-quantum signatures. He is a co-author of Bitcoin and Cryptocurrency Technologies, the leading textbook on cryptocurrencies, and he has previously worked at Google and Microsoft Research, where he co-invented the Picnic signature algorithm. When not working, you can find Steven spending time with his family, taking a nature walk, or twisting balloons.
Harry Kalodner
Harry Kalodner is Co-founder and Chief Technology Officer at Offchain Labs where he leads the engineering team. Before the company he attended Princeton as a Ph.D candidate where his research explored economics, anonymity, and incentive compatibility of cryptocurrencies, and he also has worked at Apple. When not up at 3:00am writing code, Harry occasionally sleeps.
submitted by hkalodner to ethereum [link] [comments]

algorithmic cryptocurrency trading

tldr; I'm an algorithmic cryptocurrency trader with my own cross-exchange trading platform that is performing well(ish) and I'm looking for ideas, partners, investors etc to help me push it forward.
I've been trading cryptocurrencies programmatically since 2016 with some success. For about a year I made a modest living executing arbitrage trades across mostly fiat pairs using a bot hurredly hacked together in my spare time. As time went on the margins got lower and lower and eventually I turned the system off as it just wasn't profitable enough. I wasn't sure what to do, so I went back to my career in finance while I considered my options.
Skip to the present day and I have rebuilt everything from scratch. I now have a cloud hosted (GCP), fully functional trading platform and have some new algos that are running unsupervised 24x7. The platform is far from finished of course, and like all non-trivial solutions to non-trivial problems: it has bugs, both scaling and performance problems and has a number of unfinished features. However, it does work, and cruically: it's stable, performant and reliable. In the past 12 months it has traded over $4m (roughly 40,000 executed orders and 100,000 fill events), and 99.9% of these orders are generated by my algos.
I don't do arbitrage any more, though I may resurrect that algo as my exchange fees come down. My new algos are a little more sophisticated and they seem to reliably make a small profit (between 0.1% and 0.4%). I have a number of ideas cooking away for more algos, I'm just finding it difficult to manage my time. Both the platform and the algos need a lot of work and I only have one pair of hands.
I'm actively trading on 18 exchanges and adding a new one roughly every couple of weeks. The system records and reports every order, trade, balance change, transfer, fee etc in real time using the APIs offered by each exchange. Each new exchange presents a new set of problems. Some are easy to integrate and have fairly sensible APIs, but some definitely do not. Some exchanges have helpful support, some defiantly do not. Some of the APIs change over time, some do not (although sometimes I wish they would). The more exchanges I add the more difficult it is to keep the system behaving in an rational manner. Some exchanges are so bad, though a combination of API and support, that I've had to blacklist them.
With every exchange so far, and for varying reasons, I've had to implement both the streaming (websocket / fix) AND REST APIs in order to get a working solution. Exchanges don't typically do a great job with their APIs - some are astonishingly poor IMO, and have been for years. Some reputable exchanges do completely miss some really quite basic features. Some are internally inconsistent with things like error reporting. They all report fees differently and the way they charge fees varies greatly (some don't report the trade fees at all). Each exchange of course has it's own symbols for currencies and markets, and they also change over time (typically as a result of forked blockchains: BCC -> BCH -> BCHABC...). Some use different symbols between their own REST and websocket APIs. It's not uncommon for exchanges to delist markets, but surprisingly common for them it ignore the impact on users when they do so. It's also not uncommon for exchanges to delete your old orders after they close, but some exchanges will delete your trade data too after a relatively short period of time (good luck doing your tax returns). They all employ different strategies for rate limiting. Some have helpful metadata API calls, but most don't. And of course the API docs are often either missing, misleading or blatantly incorrect. Exchanges will routinely close markets, or suspend deposits and/or withdrawals of a certain currency (which has a huge impact on prices). The good ones with have API calls that reports this data, but there are very few good ones. I could go on but you get the picture.
My application currently trades around 50-100k USD per day, and I'm planning/hoping to scale this up to 1m USD per day in a year from now.
At any one moment it's managing about 100 to 300 concurrent open orders. The order management and trade reporting is the thing I've probably spent most time on. Having an accurate and timely order management system is vital to any trading system. My order sizes are relatively small and I have a pretty solid risk management system that prevents the algos from going crazy and building up large unwanted exposures. Having said that, the number of things that can go wrong is large, and when things do go wrong they tend to go VERY wrong VERY quickly... usually while I'm out walking the dog.
I measure and record pretty much every aspect of the system so that I know when and where the time is being spent. Auditing is key. My system isn't what you'd call lightning fast right now. I don't think you would want to use it for high frequency trading. But I firmly believe that knowing where the time is being spent is over half the battle, so that's what I'm focusing on right now. Reducing latency and increasing throughput are always in the back of my mind, and although I've never intentionally designed the system to be fast, I make sure not to do anything that would needlessly slow it down.
The platform itself is built on asynchronous messaging. It is backed by a cloud hosted SQL database and (apart from the database) all components have redundancy. It's running on a hand made cluster of 12 low cost servers, but much of the workload is distributed to cloud functions. It costs me a few hundred USD per month but as I scale up I expect that to scale up accordingly.
I have a fairly basic front end (I'm not a UI person at all) built in react and firebase that I use to monitor and report the state of the system. It needs A LOT of work, but functionally it does what I need right now. I can see my orders, trades, portfolio, transfers etc in real time and I can browse and chart the market data that the system is collecting. One feature it has that I am very pleased with is the trade entry form for manual trading (its surprisingly nuanced).
I only trade on spot markets right now, so other markets (derivates, lending etc) are not supported. Until I have an idea for a algo that trades in these markets I won't be adding them. And currently I only trade on the old fashioned, centralised exchanges.
I'm writing this because I'm looking for ideas, partners, investors or even customers. I think the system has value, and it's time to move to the next level, whatever that may be. If you have an idea for an algo, adding them to the system is trivial now and if we could work out some sort of profit sharing I'd be keen to discuss it (and happy to sign an NDA of course). Feel free to reach out to me privately if you want to discuss anything.
submitted by iampomo to CryptoCurrency [link] [comments]

Cookieverse 7 - Contact!

Pirates as promised. After a bunch of tiny little updates. Apologies for the choppiness. Trying to compress a lot of time and activity here.
The next episode may take a few days. Have to make progress on school work.
Stolen from Farscape as a familiar time scale might be helpful for some: * Microt: second * Micron: Minute * Arn: Hour * Cycle: Year
⏮ First | ◀️ Previous | 🌐 Wiki | Next ▶️
The trip to Earth was uneventful.
Soimt and Cragil largely stayed on the bridge where they weren’t exposed to the human insanity belowdecks. Soimt complained the entire time because this was one of his largest, slowest ships and it had no real defensive measures. For any who wish to hear the entire monologue on the insanity of humans, it can be downloaded from the ship’s archive.
Katelyn asked Keiko, “Are you sure it’s working?”
Keiko rolled her eyes and said, “Yes. I adopted the code to run on these new systems and once we can place this satellite in orbit, the long-range comms system will let us touch base as-needed to get updated blocks to crunch as well as to report our successes. It’s like a more advanced copy of the cube-sat our troop paid to launch a couple years ago, but this one can stay in orbit and it’s small enough that it’s not likely to get noticed anytime soon.”
“You did this all on your own?”
“No, Jessica did a lot, but Jeff kept sniffing around and getting in the way, so she went down to help with the labyrinth — mostly by telling him what to do. It’s like he’s even more into her after she tried to roast him like a pig!”
Katelyn shuddered. “Let’s hope we’re not going to have a recurrence of that incident.”
“No worries there. The crew that did the work joked at first about recharging the system with the cheap stuff. So I told them I was updating the nav system to take us straight to them anytime the system discharged. They became very helpful after that. The new fire suppressant is safe for humans and they flushed the whole system twice before charging it. Oh! And they even built some uneven bars in the main cargo bay that Summer can swing on instead of the fire control system.”
Chuckling, Katelyn asked, “Anything you need? Or did you think of everything already?”
“Signal. And maybe an AI when we can afford one.”
With only two umbilical-ready ports on the ship, both in the cargo bay, the problem of routing the pirates down the desired path relied heavily on making sure they would choose the right one.
Some putty around the latch points made it near impossible to use the one on the port side. And for good measure, the cargo containers loaded with iron manufacturing ingots each nearly [a meter] on each side made it quite unlikely anyone would try to burn their way through even if they could get an umbilical to latch there. That left the starboard port.
The labyrinth was nearly complete. From the time that someone entered, they would have to crawl, jump, slide sideways, climb, drop, walk across dangerously narrow paths, and worse to get through. Trying to go up and over was discouraged with rather sharp spikes on the upper sections and ceilings in most sections.
The best time anyone had managed even with full lighting and a map was a bit under ten minutes. Figuring the pirates would have to work through without such advantages, it was likely that they would split up and try to tackle this maze in teams.
And there was no chance the maze would be merely unlit.
Finishing the labyrinth took most of the trip to Earth. Though by then, not only was it fully assembled, every surface painted, the central protective chamber built, the surveillance system installed, and the various toys and trap secreted around the entire bay; the girls had started doing speed runs though it by memory (with the worst of the traps disabled).
For entertainment, they began working on the rules for their new role-playing game… Ports and Pirates. Those who had played Dungeons and Dragons before tried to adapt the system to their new reality. Some of the questions they called up to the bridge about were … not comforting to Soimt and Cragil. Explosive decompression, how to calculate travel time, frequency of pirate raids, had any stations ever been quarantined and why, and so on.
Soimt was relieved when he could finally tell the scouts that they are almost back to their homeworld.
Upon entering high orbit, Keiko’s mini-sat was placed in geosynchronous orbit over North America. What she hadn’t told the others was that she paid slightly more than needed to get a range of surveillance packages added to it. This wasn’t just a communications link for her, it was a way of keeping an eye on home.
Her supercomputer cluster started mining cryptocurrencies within seconds of the communications link being established.
Just a few arns — no, around Earth they’re called hours and they are quite close in duration. A few hours later, she announced to the ship that they had over a quarter million in negotiable cryptocurrencies and that she had stopped mining for fear of disrupting the market. As things were, a blogger had noticed a single wallet ID mining coins quickly and was already asking questions about who the new supercomputer player that was outperforming the Chinese coin farms.
Running the coins through a couple of washing services helped to reduce the odds of someone tracing the newly minted coins back to their purchases very quickly, albeit at a price. And converting to hard currencies helped as well.
“A hundred pallets?” That’s thousands of boxes of cookies!” exclaimed JT.
Kayla looked up at him and laughed. “Full pallets. We’re talking around almost a quarter-million boxes. Around 2.2 million credits since some of the boxes are a bit larger than others and we don’t get quite as many on a pallet. But I don’t know what that will buy out there, so it’s kind of hard to put into perspective.”
JT swallowed hard. “A few runs like that and you can start buying ships. Big ships.”
The cargo shuttles had basic signal fouling, but not full cloaking. The idea of having to make at least five trips did not sit well with him. He asked, “How out-of-the-way can we make our pickup points?”
“That depends. They can be as out there as you like, as long as you pick up the rest of the things on the list.”
Scanning through the list on his tablet, JT nodded as he read off each item. “Two pallets liquor for the bar. Check. Two pallets kegs, miscellaneous beers. Check. Groceries — do we have room for all this in the cryo compartment? We’ll make something work. Fresh fruit. Damn right. Check. Forty cases of tampons and fifty of pads? Who added—”
Katelyn punched her favorite spot on his upper arm and said, “Hon, you forget those, and you can forget coming back to the ship.”
“Yes, dear,” Jt agreed as he continued down the list. “Fish stores? Why am I going to so many tropical fish stores? Oh… Wow. Now that’s just mean! Okay, I’ll get what I can, but I do not want to see what happens there. Dice? Why do we need dice?”
Summer piped up, “Ports and Pirates! Lots of dice! Lots of pretty colors! Go to a game store and just buy them out! Tell the clerk you want all their D&D dice. Keiko says we can afford it.”
Having already heard the complaints about random number generators, JT just nodded and continued reading through the list. This was going to be around eight runs. Without cloaking. He couldn’t ask Soimt and Cragil for help, because if they were seen, there would be panic. They resembled nothing quite so much as a scrawny form of the Pervects from the old Myth Adventures series. Five feet high, lanky, scaly, and green. Kind of hard to blend in unless working on the set of a horror flick.
“Babe,” he asked Katelyn, “could you pilot the other cargo shuttle? I’d rather make fewer trips and not have the Air Force up my keister.”
Katelyn grinned and asked, “Who has a driver’s license or learner’s permit and wants to learn to pilot a shuttle? We can each take one co-pilot per trip.”
Kate and JT had been more than a little surprised at how many people were wearing masks. When the girls told them to expect it, it just did not seem real. This, of course, made the dire warnings about keeping their own masks on finally hit home.
With all supplies on board, the cryo compartment barely able to close, six more scouts with three more siblings, and even a few last-minute additions like forty cases of MREs, the crew of the Second Chance (not its original name, but Soimt missed the vote) left Earth orbit.
Kate and JT, never having thought they’d set foot on their homeworld again, were verklempt. “Choked-up” just did not do justice to their emotional state.
With many a misted eye, they left the little blue dot behind and set course back to the station.
Within a few arns, the new recruits were already learning Galactic Standard.
Captain Mindar and Quartermaster Haddin responded to a panicked call from the acting Dockmaster.
Turnover had been high since the auditors arrived and started going through the records. Nearly the entire administrative staff in all departments was now imprisoned either on the station or, for the more senior personnel, onboard the Gouging Horn.
This had resulted in quite a few rapid promotions and some rather nervous staff members.
Nothing made them as nervous as what they saw coming out of the newly docked ship.
“Captain!” exclaimed JT offering his hand. “That new medal looks great on you!”
“Haddin!” cried Katelyn, giving the Quartermaster an enthusiastic hug.
Get those off my station!” shouted Mindar, pointing at the pallets of cookies.
Katelyn released Haddin and turned to face the Captain. “The problem last time was we didn’t have enough. Well, two problems. The other was nobody knew if there would be more. Now we’ve got over two hundred thousand boxes, so everybody could buy some if they wanted to. We’ll make sure everyone has a chance to buy them before we depart. After the lines die down, we’ll leave some cases at the bar and make sure everyone knows there are more coming. I think you’re a thin mints guy, am I right?”
Seeing her ‘guess’ hit home (bless you, Haddin!), she continued, “No — I’m not going to bribe you. You can pay the same as anyone else. Everything above board. But you’ll have the chance to buy a few boxes before we go. So will everyone else. It’ll almost certainly improve morale around here! Besides, we need to talk some business. While JT takes some supplies up to the bar, why don’t you and I talk about pirates and bounties…”
With the bar fully restocked, agreements in place for handing off prisoners to the navy, the latest updates from Barry and his team, the Second Chance was nearly ready to head out. Nearly. There was still the minor matter of selling to the locals first.
Making good on her promise to Mindar, Katelyn supervised the scouts as they set up a stand to sell cookies. With cases stacked behind them to show that there was ample supply, they let word spread through the station that there was a new shipment ready for sale.
In just microns, there was a queue winding through the docking bay and stretching through the station proper. Credit chits and cookie boxes flowed smoothly in opposite directions.
As the station’s inhabitants flowed through, the scouts not staffing the booth kept up a running discussion nearby about which station they should go to next. For some reason, they kept coming back to the same conclusion: Kexitaria Station. Near a Dominion University world and just two hops away from a major trade hub, this seemed to meet most of their needs. Of course, they also kept asking one another if two hundred thousand boxes of cookies would be enough when they got there.
As the Second Chance left the station, Captain Mindar sighed with relief. “Haddin, give fleet command a heads-up. There is a slow trader vessel leaving here on its way to Kexitaria Station and I am worried they might get attacked for their cargo. Do not go into details about the cargo or its value. We just need to make sure we have properly logged a report.”
“Understood, sir!” replied the Quartermaster and took off toward the comm center.
On the bridge of the Second Chance, an argument had broken out.
You told everyone where we are going?” demanded Soimt.
“Of course,” replied Kayla calmly. “How else can we make sure the pirates catch up to us?”
“But they must have heard what this shipment is worth! There are certainly spies for them still at the station!”
“I hope so,” said Kayla in her most soothing tones. “You were the one who wanted us to catch pirates, so we would be breaking our contract if we didn’t do everything we could to do so. Don’t worry. We have this covered.”
“They will just storm in with large numbers of pirates and kill us all!”
“You haven’t looked at the cargo bay in a while, have you?
An arn later, JT was pouring Hortacian Picsal (or Horse Piss as he thought of the 2% crap booze) for the Pervs like there was no tomorrow.
Three days out, only halfway to Kexitaria, JT was beginning to wonder if he had packed enough Horse Piss to keep the Pervs passed out drunk until they reached their destination. Cragil was stirring again. Oh well. Have to hydrate them before getting them wasted again.
“Turn it off!” moaned Cragil as Soimt began to stir as well.
“Turn what off?” asked JT.
“The proximity alarm. Turn it off!”
JT looked around, bewildered. He didn’t hear anything. There was, he noticed, a light flashing on one of the consoles.
After a few moments of studying the console, then a quick check of a couple of others, JT fired up the PA system and announced, “Contact! Vessel attempting a stealthy approach. Prepare to be boarded. All hands, prepare to be boarded! Jessica, get your butt up to the bridge and relieve me so I can join the fun down there! Everyone, please be careful!”
Klyyx abandoned his efforts to attach his second umbilical to the defective hatch. They would just have to use the one. No pincer attack this time.
“Okay, we do not know how this cargo reacts to vacuum, so we are not breaching the hull this time. Only one umbilical would latch, so everyone to the starboard side. In and out through the umbilical. I am about to engage the magnetic locks, so be ready to raid. Bridge crew: once we are locked on, come join the fun! Earn your share!”
“Report in,” said Kayla as she settled down at the gaming table in the middle of the central chamber.
Checking off each scout as they reported readiness, she finally said, “We’re good to go. Be safe, everyone. No unnecessary risks. If they get dangerous, call out and Jess will gas the whole cargo bay. Keep your masks handy. Good luck!”
At this, Jessica softly spoke in everyone’s earpieces, “Okay girls, it’s party time. I’m your eyes and ears for this one. We’ve got our database thanks to the dock workers. As soon as I know who we’ve got, I’ll let you know and Summer will start the game.
As the port opened, the pirates in front started moving forward at high speed. They didn’t have much choice with everyone behind pushing hard trying to get in quickly.
This meant that nobody got a warning. Nobody knew to expect the [three meter] drop or the complete darkness.
As the pile of bodies grew under the hatch, so did the volume of swearing.
A few weapons were accidentally discharged. Many were lost during the drop. A few of the pirates turned on their suit lights then panicked when they could only see one another, not the walls or even the cushioned floor they could feel below them.
After the accidental discharges, two crew members would never see anything again.
< Twelve days ago >
“It’s all about the carbon nanotubes,” said Tanya. “Instead of trying to grow them as long as you can and align them into cables, what you want to do is grow them poorly. They should branch off, tangle, and generally be a mess. The more so, the better. These CNTs, well, they naturally absorb a lot of light. But when they’re grown poorly like this, well, shining a light through is like — well, imagine losing an earring backing in a thick carpet. Compare that to losing one on a sheet. On the sheet, there’s just one layer, and it’s easy to spot on top. In the carpet, the backing, or the light, gets lost inside.”
JT took this in then asked, “But if I shine a really bright light…?”
“It’s a really thick carpet. Look, the light will be absorbed and might cause the fibers to heat up. In fact, I guess it has to. But CNTs are good at dissipating that heat, so if someone tried to shine their lights on the material long enough to heat it up, by the time they’re done with the next couple spots, it’ll be losing the heat. Just dispersing it into the air. Hey! We can add some cooling vents and speed that up!”
“So we’re just going to spray this sludge on every surface?”
“Yep — and keep your respirators on at all times. These chemicals are kind of nasty. We’ll have to vent the cargo bay when we’re all done. If you feel at all light-headed or get a headache, shout out. Keep your safety lines on! Ready?”
Tanya gave everyone a once-over to make sure the respirators (it’s amazing what you can have produced quickly when you’ve got a few thousand spare credits!) indicated good seals and confirmed everyone has a safety line attached.
“This is going to get disorienting quickly! Don’t take off your masks! If you get freaked out, call me and I’ll come and get you! Just stay calm, call my name once in a while, and I’ll get you out!” promised Tanya, hoping she wouldn’t freak out herself when the absolute darkness came.
< Back to the present >
Untangling themselves and trying not to shoot one another as they retrieved their weapons, the pirates milled around and tried to get their bearings.
The darkness of space is one thing. At least there you have the starts as reference points. Usually some planets and moons as well. But who had ever heard of being someplace so dark that light itself was swallowed whole?
Klyyx pressed a hand against a padded wall and felt it push back. His hand was clearly visible in his suit lights, but the wall, right in front of him was not registering. It is here. I know it is here. I can feel it! But I can not see it!
“Get yourselves under control!” he demanded.
“Captain! Our suits!” cried one of the first pirates in.
“What about them?”
“They are leaking!”
“What?!” Klyyx demanded. Checking his own suit, he noted that it was not its normal puffy self. The arms seemed to sag a little. The material everywhere seemed to sag.
Close inspection of the material showed lots of tiny holes. They were not large, but they did not need to be. What was rather large was the hole near his shoulder where a stray plasma blast had nearly burned him alive instead of just melting his suit.
“What do we do, Klyyx?” asked Istvan, his second in command.
“No slug throwers. No plasma. Nothing that might breach the hull or the umbilical. Anyone feeling clever who tries to hold onto a weapon that can get me killed in here is going to die horribly. Got that?”
A nervous round of half-hearted agreement later, he opted for a firmer approach. “It seems like not everyone here feels the same urgency to avoid vacuum…” Sliding his knife out, he slashed at a couple of suits that had, until moments before, exhibited a taut, puffy appearance. “Let’s all make sure our comrades have the same investment we do in keeping the atmosphere intact. Everyone will walk past me and I will slash each suit. Istvan here will kill anyone who resists. After that, we will pile up helmets and any dangerous weapons in a corner — or wherever. I can not even see the walls! There is one near me, and we will leave these things against it. Power cells removed from the weapons to prevent more accidents.”
Jessica provided a quick update. “Okay, we’ve got two names so far. The Captain appears to be Klyyx and his preferred heavy sounds like Istvan. According to the intel, that means we’re dealing with the Family Honor. Estimated crew size: thirty-six. I only counted thirty-two entering so far, so we might have to perform a boarding operation later.
“They appear to have noticed that their suits are compromised. Not sure if they figured out the needles hidden in the floor padding or not. Sounds like the Captain is making them all take off their helmets, so I don’t expect them to willingly compromise the hull. If they do, get to your designated hiding holes, secure the doors, and crank open the air tanks in case the countermeasures don’t work.
“Update those character sheets and have a great game!”
Sijna wasn’t sure what to make of things. I only joined the crew a quarter cycle ago, but I dirtied my hands so much in that time. Piracy, kidnapping, and they won’t trust me until they see me commit murder! Uncle Yxyll insisted I had to go into the Family business, but I would have been much happier running a market stall or even working on a farm. If only—
“Sijna!” yelled Istvan. “Stop daydreaming! Get moving down this side passage with Kerhp and Dral! Give a shout if you find a way out!”
“Yes, sir,” replied Sijna, following the two bobbing sets of suit lights and adding his own to the eerie scene as he slid down the narrow passage following the twists and turns as there was not much choice once one started in that direction.
Eventually, he found himself thinking again. Hardly a healthy habit with this crew. No way most of the crew would even fit in here. And this is not natural, he told himself. Even in space, we can see stars. This darkness is disturbing. It is disorienting. It just—
Rounding a corner, he bumped into either Kerhp or Dral.
“Watch it, idiot!”
Dreck. Why did I have to run into Dral? He’s a nasty one. “So why are we stopping?”
“The passage splits here. Kerhp is going to take the left passage. I will step into that one, then follow you down the right passage to make sure you do your job.”
Great. I’m the sacrifice. “Yes, sir.”
After several microns, he unexpectedly reached the end of the right passage and Dral ran into him. “Keep going!”
“We are at the end. I feel some sort of vertical pipes and — oh.”
“What is it?”
A small placard lit up in front of Sijna. It simply read, “Do not climb the ladder, Sijna.”
“Uhh. There is a ladder, but I am not supposed to climb it.”
“I say you are. And I have a blade at your back.”
The words on the placard changed to “You were warned” before disappearing back into the darkness.
“I really do not think I sh—” Sijna went silent as he felt the flat of a blade pressed to his back. “Up I go then.”
Sijna felt for a rung near head height, found one, grasped it firmly, then sought another slightly higher up. Upon grabbing that, he found one with his left foot, tried to release his first hand, and screamed.
Kerhp had also reached the end of his passage. On the floor in front of him was a cube of gold nearly the size of his palm on any face. I might be able to sneak this out and not have to share it!
Kneeling down to pick it up, he noticed some text on the top. Never one of the greatest students, Kerhp sounded out the words slowly.
“Not. Yours. Do. Not. Touch.”
Looking around nervously, he laughed. Nobody can see me here, and this is more than my share of the last haul.
As Kerhp grasped the golden cube in his claws, it fell apart and a liquid ran out. The disorientation from the darkness seemed to be momentarily worse. He felt like he was spinning.
The liquid seemed to disappear into the damnably black floor. Then the floor wasn’t so black. A blue foam began to rise and the space was suddenly warm.
Cursing the creators of this maze, Kerhp tried to stand up, only to hit his head rather hard on a ceiling that wasn’t there before. Attempting to back out of the space, he hit a wall.
Panicking, he scrabbled around wildly as the bright blue foam continued to rise. It rose past his waist, up his torso, all the while hot but not quite burning, and reached his shoulders before another liquid streamed down from above.
A soft voice said, “Take a deep breath and hold it.”
Looking around for the source, he tried to stab his claws through the walls and low ceiling to no avail. Worse, the temperature was dropping quickly and the foam was hardening.
Klyyx was unhappy with his team’s progress. Twice he had been forced to further divide his forces because not everyone could fit through the same passages. Three dead ends. Two missing crew members. The remaining ones were likely to become mutinous if this kept up.
Perhaps the only thing that had stopped a stampede back to the ship so far was his suggestion that they use their tubes of suit repair gel to note dead ends and warn of hazards. The bright green goo dried quickly and stood out against the darkness. And the crew seemed to realize that without someone making these suggestions, they would be in bad shape.
Finally, with his remaining band of eight, he found what appeared to be a bridge of some sort.
‘Found’ might be the wrong word.
Ulfyx was scouting on the left side of a wide passage. Well, ‘scouting’ might be the wrong word as well.
After the … thing that swallowed Nebrip two turns back, it was more of a panicked run.
Ulfyx was running away from the impossibly dark … thing that just swallowed Nebrip whole. Nebrip was a Fezyk! Nothing fights a Fezyk, much less just consumes one! So Ulfyx was ‘scouting with great enthusiasm,’ one hand brushing the left wall for reference and had similarly enthusiastic crewmates close on his prehensile tail. Scardons are among the few species to demand vacuum suits that support tails because theirs are so helpful.
As his fingers brushed past the end of the wall, Ulfyx yelped because his feet also left the floor behind. At his panicked shriek, his crewmates froze in place, unsure what the danger was.
They didn’t have to wait long to hear a splash. His suit lights showed some small things darting around in the liquid, but nothing large enough to be a threat as they swam past and disappeared into the dark background again.
Ulfyx struggled briefly, got his footing, and laughed.
“A bath! I have not had a bath in ages! I did not intend to have one today. I can stand in here, but would rather not. Help me up. I need to get this water out of my suit.”
As a couple of his crewmates extended their arms into the water for Ulfyx to grab onto, one pulled his back quickly and cried out in pain.
Ulfyx grabbed the other crewmate’s hand, unable to see past the bright suit lights to know who was helping him, and began to climb out. Annoyed with the less-helpful crewmate, he yelled, “I’m the one who got wet, you fool! Why are you whining?”
“My hand! My hand!”
The injured crewmate had lost his gloves to some sort of adhesion trap earlier, so his bare hand had gone into the water. And slightly less of it came out.
The remaining pirates clustered in two groups around the injured crewmate and the soggy one.
Klyyx examined the injured hand. After only a few microts in the water, it looked like several small bites had been taken from it. “Someone bandage that!” he groused then went to look at Ulfyx who was now yowling and trying to get out of his suit.
Several of the pirates tried to help, but Ulfyx’s wild thrashing did not make this easy. Finally, Klyyx punched Ulfyx knocking him out and said, “Strip him.”
The others tore off the suit and watched as a couple of fish started flopping down the slight slope down to the water.
Grabbing the smaller one, Klyyx looked in its mouth and noted the vicious teeth. He threw it hard against the other wall hoping to kill the creature, but it simply fell to the ground and kept flopping until a soft “ploink” sound indicated it had gotten back to the water as the larger one had moments before.
Meanwhile, it became obvious why Ulfyx was so upset. His prehensile tail had been severed. All that was left was a nub.
Some very cautious searching revealed that there was a drop off across nearly the entire passageway except a slightly off-center portion that was about three handspans wide and only a finger thick.
Looking over the rest of his crew, Klyyx sighed. The larger among us will not have an easy time crossing here. My chitin is not well-balanced for such things.
“Alright you lazy slobs. One of you mark the edge and write a warning about the creatures, and someone wake Ulfyx up. He has a job to do.”
submitted by EqualWrite to HFY [link] [comments]

Summarizing some free trading idea resources I've been using

I've been following many free resources on youtube and twitter to generate trading ideas. Some of them are suspicious; some are more like boasting their wining trades but never post any losing trades. I see many people ask about trading ideas/resources, so I want to briefly share some resources I find useful.

Twitter resources:
  1. @ TicTocTick


  1. @ tradingwarz


  1. @ traderstewie


Youtube resources:
  1. Conquer trading and investing. https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCN2WmKUchJpIcS1MupY-BuA


  1. Blaze Capital: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCq0BCGckWWjrnV8YdYO24JA
Other notes:
  1. The scalping trades in the morning is not very suitable for small accounts since they will trade for example 100 shares of BA (~160) to scalp a few dollars per share.
  2. Even though the stocks on their weekly watchlist does well very, one still need to come up with an actionable plan. Very often say they recommend stock A on Sunday, and on Monday it already gaps up big. They sometimes do YOLO options -- big risk big rewards-- options can go to 0.
  3. Besides the free content, everyone can get a free one-week trial for their paid membership, or a 2-week free trial by winning a lottery game on their youtube ( what I did) or knowing someone in their group and get a referral. What I like about the group: (i) very frequently updates each day on SPY and stocks on the watchlist. (ii) all their positions, Profit / Loss are very transparent. I learned a lot about how to manage trades by observing their live trades. (iii) There are many very experienced traders in the group posting their trading ideas, plans, entry/exit, and there are many live discussions. (iv) There's a "helpdesk" in the group where members' questions will be answered in minutes. I often ask about my trading plan, entries/ targets.




Other resources:
  1. Shadow trader free newsletter
https://www.shadowtrader.net/newsletter-category/swing-trade


I've spent much time looking for free contents, and I like the ones above. Also looking forward to hearing about other good/bad resources. I might also update this post if there are enough interests. NFA
submitted by Busy-Valuable to Daytrading [link] [comments]

High-Frequency Trading Is Newest Battleground in Crypto Exchange Race - CoinDesk

fintech #trading #algotrading #quantitative #quant

High-Frequency Trading Is Newest Battleground in Crypto Exchange RaceThe TakeawayHigh-frequency trading (HFT), a longtime and controversial practice in traditional markets, is becoming commonplace in crypto, too.Placing trading servers physically close to exchanges’ matching engines can win an edge on speed. This helps HFT firms make large profits in the legacy markets.Crypto exchanges such as ErisX, Huobi and Gemini are trying to attract large algorithmic traders with colocation offers.Demand for the service is high, but its benefits are a matter of debate, due to the structure of the crypto market. A handful of cryptocurrency exchanges are rolling out the red carpet for high-frequency traders.
Huobi, based in Singapore, and ErisX, in Chicago, have separately begun offering colocation, in which a client’s server is placed in the same facility or cloud as the exchange’s, officials at each exchange told CoinDesk. This allows those investors to execute trades up to a hundred times fa.....
Continue reading at: https://www.coindesk.com/high-frequency-trading-is-new-battleground-in-crypto-exchange-race
submitted by silahian to quant_hft [link] [comments]

IM Academy (Formally known as iMarketlive)

Hello.
There have been both positive and negative comments about IM Academy. Some people believe it's a pyramid scheme while others believe it's the real deal.
I'm here to give my thoughts on what I have experienced since joining IM Academy. Since day one, there has been nothing but support and motivation from every individual I have come in contact with. In our group, we have over 2000 members. I am learning A LOT about FOREX, HFX, DCX, how to be an IBO (Independent Business Owner) and more!
Do they promote? YES, they do promote the EDUCATION, the SKILL SET, the TRAININGS, the WEBINARS, SUPPORTING not just your team, but others, they promote having a positive MIND SET and reaching out to your MENTORS! They encourage you to inform others of these opportunities in the same way you would inform others of your favorite TV Show, restaurant, sports team, your favorite drink, etc. Do you HAVE to inform others of this life changing skill set that can possibly enhance not only your finances, but your way of life? NO, you do NOT HAVE to say one word about it.
The only difference between them encouraging you to tell others about the Academy, the MILLIONAIRE skills you LEARN as you EARN vs. talking about your favorite eatery is that in doing so you have the opportunity to gain residual income. For those who do not know what Residual Income is: simply put, you are able to have an additional stream of income. Who would not want to have an additional stream of income just by simply telling others what you do and they decide to join your team? All you are doing is telling someone about the opportunity to join IM Academy to learn the same skills used by Millionaires! It's up them to decide if they would like to take advantage of the opportunity or not.
There are several individuals who are making 6, 7 and even 8 figures by using the skill set and/or telling someone else of this opportunity. Some of these individuals are just like you and me and some are the Educators which we do have over 100 of. They offer LIVE TRAININGS where you can ask them questions right then and there if need be.
I have read some comments about how you can find this information on YouTube or other online platforms. Maybe you can, BUT it will NOT be well put together, it may not be as accurate and will you have access to Mentors including Millionaire mentors whenever you need help with something like you do with IM Academy?
I've also heard people have said, if you only invest $50 into your account once you get started, it will be gone in no time. More than likely, people who make these comments did NOT attend the trainings and they did NOT use proper risk management. We have SEVERAL trainings through the week and one of the most important training is called the TRADING Plan! This plan teaches you exactly how NOT to over leverage your account. It also teaches you how much to risk for your account size, knowing this will let you know how many trades per a day you can take. If you do exactly what you are taught, your account will not go negative and you would not be posting angry comments about how IM Academy is not what it says it is. Not only do we have trainings by our peers that teach you this, but we also learn this in the Academy Education with the Educators.
Simple Run Down:
Have you ever opened a Bank Account and they had you filled out all these forms that had a bunch of big fancy terminology on them? Well, that fancy terminology means, you are agreeing to allow the banks to invest YOUR money for you. In turn they give you 1% or LESS within a certain amount of MONTHS or even YEARS! You see, what they are doing is investing YOUR money in the FOREX market. They basically flip YOUR funds into profit within a matter of a few days to a few MINUTES and give you the PENNIES of what they made from YOUR money.
Did you know according to glassdoor.com, the national average for a FOREX Trader at a BANK makes around $92,327 a year. To most people that is a LOT of money, but what if I told you they have actually learned a skill that can allow them to make that in a MONTH or LESS? How would YOU like to learn how to do the SAME THING!
This is a financially life changing skill that you can learn to possibly have a better life! You Do NOT need to have experience. You DO NOT need to talk to other people to join YOUR team. This is NOT a SCAM, it is not a GET RICH QUICK solution, but you can become wealthy if you learn and put those skills to use. ANYONE can do this! I do NOT care if you did not graduate High School, if you are a Janitorial Custodian, an Exotic Dancer or a Multi-Millionaire who is looking to gain even more income. You are NOT ALONE with IM Academy. WE are in this together!
What is FOREX? It is simple the Foreign Exchange Market. It is much bigger than the Stock Market, as FOREX is worldwide and trades over $5 Trillion daily! Yes, you read that right, over $5 TRILLION daily! I think there is enough for you to get a piece of the pie.
What is HFX? HFX stands for High Frequency Forex also known as Binary Options. You can buy and sell within a matter of minutes. Which means you can gain profits or lose within 1 to 30 minutes on average. YES, that's right! You do have the possibility of increasing your funds with HFX in as little as 1 minute! BUT, DISCLAIMER: We do NOT recommend you doing this type of trade on your own. With our Academy we have highly skilled Educators who will teach you THEIR technique. Yes, that's right, we have Millionaire Educators who created their own program and will teach you how to use it in order to get significant profits with HFX.
What is DCX? DCX is Cryptocurrency, such as your Bitcoin, Litecoin, Ethereum, Ripple and more! Remember, the guy who purchased a home with Bitcoin several years ago? Well, today it's becoming a lot more popular. People are able to purchase several types of assets using Cryptocurrency, especially since over 10,000 retailers are now accepting Cryptocurrency as payment. Oh, did I forget to mention The Federal Reserve Bank of Boston is working with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) to develop a "hypothetical" digital currency platform. Now, ask yourself, why would the Federal Reserve Bank "hypothetically" create a digital currency platform? Why would they "hypothetical" spend MILLIONS of dollars in creating a "hypothetical" anything?
Bottom line for me is, our world has and is continuing to change. When I was a child, I only saw self driving cars, smart homes, weird types of currencies being used in movies. Look around, what do you see in real life today?
I am not trying to convince you to join me and my team so that I can have residual income. I am giving you vital information to possible help secure your future. FOREX is exchanging over $5 Trillion dollars EVERY SINGLE DAY! Me, YOU, YOUR families, YOUR friends have the opportunity to get in NOW on skills that eventually everyone will have to learn at some point in their lives. You might as well do it NOW, go at your own pace, so you do NOT have to rush to figure it out later.
I sure hope this answered your questions. If you have more questions or would like to know more information, PLEASE respond to me here or send me an e-mail, [email protected].
submitted by Neat-Impact-5088 to u/Neat-Impact-5088 [link] [comments]

With Bitcoin Suddenly Surging, Canaan Stock Is Also Going Up Today

With Bitcoin Suddenly Surging, Canaan Stock Is Also Going Up Today



By signing up, you may receive emails concerning CoinDesk products and you agree to our terms & conditions and privacy policSTER ON THE SITE
We need all users to enroll on our platform to access the Bitcoin Trader platform. The sign up method is easy and solely takes a couple of minutes. You'll be able to forever contact our customer service team if you wish helpour Bitcoin Trader account for our trading robot to position trades on your behalf. We tend to need all users to possess a minimum of $250 in their account before accessing our web trader platform. This quantity is enough to require positions price lots of thousands of dollars when using leverage.

https://preview.redd.it/e63kae9rz9j51.png?width=3116&format=png&auto=webp&s=eeb8869dbccb0fca7c64d3c91f83cebcdb446e84
You do not would like any expertise to trade with the Bitcoin Trader app. We tend to are ninety nine.99percent automatic, that means that live trading involves terribly little manual input. Moreover, we tend to offer comprehensive guides and tutorials to help users set up a live trading account.
ognized by the US Trading Association as the foremost profitable crypto robot in 20twenty. Whereas results rely on market conditions, a number of our traders have seen profits of more than four
What is the minimum deposit withBitcoin freedom
You'll be able to trade with us by depositing just $250. The additional you deposit, the more earning potential you have in a very single day. However, we have a tendency to encourage our users to begi
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Bitcoin Trader is a trading robot powered by cutting-edge AI technology. We have a tendency to have a possible daily return on investment of up to four hundredp.c. We have a tendency to have over five thousand reviews on TrustPilot, and at least 90percent of our reviewers are happy with our platformn
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Our fees are fully transparent. You can download a listing of trading fees from the platform’s management dashboard. We have a tendency to only charge a little commission on profits earned through our trading robot
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We aim to assist normal people reap important returns from cryptocurrency trading. With us, you get exposure to over forty five Bitcoin contracts for variations (CFDs). Common crypto pairs you'll trade with us embrace BTC/USD, BTC/GBP, BTC/EUR, and BTC/XRP.

1) Register: Registering with the Bitcoin Trader app is straightforward. Scroll to the high of this page and submit the specified details through the registration kind.

We require users to verify your phone range and email, since this is often what you'll use for multi-factor authentication. Yet, our partner brokers verify the identity of all users per regulators’ understand your customer (KYC) requirements.

a pair of) eposit: You wish to deposit a minimum of $250 US to trade with the Bitcoin Trader software. We tend to depend on our partner brokers to facilitate transactions, and all of our partners are absolutely regulated by government authorities. With regulated brokers, you'll rest simple knowing that your funds are safe.
You'll fund your account through wire transfer, MoneyGram, Western Union, FasaPay, Visa, MasterCard, Neteller, WebMoney, and Skrill.


three) Trading Education and Demo: We have a tendency to are an auto-trading robot, however we have a tendency to do enable our users some level of management, especially when it comes to risk management. Consequently, our Bitcoin Trader official website encourages you to travel through our trading education section to familiarize yourself with the chance management process.
Our highly intuitive demo platform ought to additionally facilitate your observe trading with the robot before you begin trading during a live account Bitcoin Freedom

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Bitcoin Trader was one amongst the primary robots to use high-frequency trading techniques to BTC trading. The robot was founded in 2015, nearly two years before the crypto boom in 2017.
Bitcoin Trader uses AI and ML to create sense of big knowledge, which allows it to trade with high accuracy.
Our trading platform became an on-line sensation in mid-2017, and it has maintained its popularity since then. Bitcoin Trader is the simplest possibility for many beginner and experienced traders.
Bitcoin Trader allows you to earn a daily profit of up to $1,00zero by investing simply $250. That’s a potential return on investment of up to four hundredpercent.
Do celebrities recommend the Bitcoin trader software?

https://preview.redd.it/6i2yjm7sz9j51.jpg?width=1280&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=b94d3dd01aaff2d7d4230f81176913586c729aef
We tend to are highly widespread and hence a prime target for celebrity gossip. There are viral rumours that we have a tendency to have been endorsed by Elon Musk, Richard Branson, and Jeff Bezos.

Elon Musk – The founder of SpaceX has invested in Bitcoin and expressed interest in artificial intelligence, however he has not invested employing a trading robot.
Richard Brandson – Branson is another celebrity alleged to own invested using Bitcoin Trader. While it's true that he loves Bitcoin and blockchain technology, he hasn’t endorsed any trading robot.
Jezz Bezos – Bezos is also a big fan of emerging technologies, however he hasn’t shown any interest in BTC trading through revolutionary robots like Bitcoin Trader.

You ought to never build an investment decision based mostly on whether or not a star has endorsed or invested in it. Bitcoin Trader has been tested and licensed by specialists.

The verdict about Bitcoin Trader
We tend to are a prime-rated crypto trading robot with nice reviews on sites like TrustPilot and ForexPeaceArmy. Moreover, we have been recognized as legit and profitable by authoritative bodies like the US Trading Association.

We have a tendency to are always striving to offer the most effective to our users by regularly improving our trading platform. Our team of experts analyzes feedback from users to work out what features will create a a lot of seamless trading experience. We tend to operate in complete transparency, having partnered with some of the world’s most reputable brokers.

Our platforms are encrypted to shield you from hackers. Furthermore, we tend to also adhere to information privacy measures, like the General Information Protection Regulation (GDPR). Try out Bitcoin Trader currently through the link at the high right corner of this page.
perior over different cryptocurrencies?
LATESTBITCOINETHEREUMALTCOINSTECHNOLOGYADOPTIONBLOCKCHAINEVENTSCONTACT
PRESS RELEASEWhy is Bitcoin superior over different cryptocurrencies?Akshay KSPublished a pair of weeks agoon August 12, 2020By Akshay KS
Source: Pixabay
During this technical world, bitcoin is the foremost used digital currency all over the world. However the main question then arises within the minds of the many folks is why bitcoin is considered the foremost superior over other cryptocurrenc Bitcoin Freedom
Bitcoin is that the one method of creating transactions daily as alternative currencies. But it's its options and uniqueness that make it superior. Bitcoin and different currencies are based mostly on the cryptographic algorithms or mathematics that are encrypted, with that the user becomes the owner of the currency. Bitcoin currencies are easily accessible at Bitcoin ATM and online exchange
The main feature of the bitcoin, which makes it superior is that it is the safest option for digital transactions. These will be used for on-line searching and transfer of money too.
There are many alternative blessings to using bitcoin. A number of them are mentioned below
Decentralized and digital
Bitcoin offers the freedom of exchanging the price without representatives that proves helpful in controlling the lower fees and high funds. Bitcoin is that the faster method of transaction than others. It is secure as it is free from theft and frauds and is constant. The main advantage is that bitcoin has its homeowners whereas the bank controls the money.
Makes online looking
Normally, bitcoin will be used for on-line shopping too. Bitcoin is the opposite face of e-wallet, that is created by blockchain technology that is used to store money and will easily pay everywhere digitally. For this reason, it also makes your searching easy by which you'll be able to look from your home solely

Bitcoin is accepted globally at each corner of the planet, which makes it less volatile than local currencies or cash. This feature makes it superior because it enables us to form transactions on-line and across the boundaries
Bitcoin unable the means of tracking cash

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Bitcoin is created by blockchain technology. Blockchain is the sole technology which will either make it or break it. There are many computers which are used to keep up a permanent record of each bitcoin transactions with the help of cryptographic technique. In this approach, it becomes a lot of valuable together with the tracking of the payment. At the same time, there's no method of tracking the cash

While not any transformation method, it will be used over the entire world. It provides the simplest platform for the investment as it is free from the restrictions of governments or banks. It provides an open market and combines the simplest of gold and money.

Bitcoin provides the power to access the balance of the users with a password which is named a personal key. It additionally permits the exchange of values through the web without any middle person. Thus, bitcoin becomes safer, stuffed with privacy, and open to everyone
Unlike cash, it is not possible to form the duplicate quite bitcoin that makes it more efficient. It's protected with the technology of blockchain. Even if anyone tries to form a replica of bitcoin to use it, then the system will automatically reject it as the system recognize it as unknown

Bitcoin Freedom failed to allow two persons to transact on the one price. Once the bitcoin is transferred, its possession is also transferred. So this is the simple approach of maintaining records for any tax functions. It conjointly makes it a easy and healthier metho

Bitcoin is the foremost reliable manner of online transactions. Many questions arise in folks’s minds that are solved on websites like bitcoin revolution. One in all them was the above-mentioned question. Bitcoin provides many facilities, and it comes with more and a lot of blessings which makes it distinctive and special over different cryptocurrencies. It can be preferred as the simplest digital platform for transac


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Disclaimer: AMBCrypto US and UK Market's content is informational in nature and is not meant to be investment advice. Buying, trading or selling crypto-currencies ought to be considered a high-risk investment and every reader is advised to do their due diligence before making any decisions.
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Browse the FAQ'sn news, CoinDesk is a media outlet that strives for the very best journalistic standards and abides by a strict set of editorial policies. CoinDesk is an independent operating subsidiary of Digital Currency Group, which invests in cryptocurrencies and blockchain startups.

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Efficient But Simple! How QuarkChain Multi-Native Tokens Change the DeFi Concept

Efficient But Simple! How QuarkChain Multi-Native Tokens Change the DeFi Concept

https://preview.redd.it/2jrpy37p7uh51.png?width=700&format=png&auto=webp&s=c6da35181ac55698695d6b891b63532655bb03c4
DeFi is the hottest topic in the blockchain society these days, and the active on-chain behavior has given new vitality to many public chains based on Ethereum. However, due to structural flaws in Ethereum1.0, there is a vast authority difference between native tokens and ERC20 tokens, and it has restricted the development of DeFi. QuarkChain aims at building the next-generation DeFi platform through sharding and multi-native token to solve the problems facing DeFi today: high GAS cost, poor user experience, insecurity, and vulnerability to attacks.
Let’s experience the security and the ease-of-use of the next generation of DeFi. These DeFi products will be launched shortly, but before that, we need to introduce why our multi-native token function will help us realize a new revolution to DeFi.

DeFi, the most prominent trend in crypto?

DeFi provides users with a new way to increase passive income. Compared with the inflation model of PoS pledge, DeFi income comes from a series of derivative transactions such as staking and lending operations of the mainstream cryptocurrencies, rather than pure token creation. The expected inflation rate is lower, which makes income more stable and more reliable. Once the bull market comes, in addition to the interest on loans, one can also enjoy the benefits of staking tokens. Coupled with the newly launched “lending is mining”, it has made this year’s hot market even hotter.
Data on DeBank showed that in the context of rising global asset prices, the lending amount in the crypto market was $1.08 billion. In terms of users, the current number of DeFi users is less than 240,000. Compared with the nearly 40 million ETH addresses held on Ethereum, DeFi may be able to leverage the entire market, but things do not develop so smoothly as expected.

https://preview.redd.it/ifb20wat7uh51.png?width=689&format=png&auto=webp&s=19e1d78d426e41d15e8ca1691740a28b241647c9

Network congestion and skyrocketing gas fees

Affected by the epidemic, Bitcoin plummeted by almost 50% to $3,800, and ETH fell as much as 65.2% just on March 12 and 13. The plummet caused a run, the Ethereum miner fees that carried a large number of DeFi and DApps skyrocketed, and the network was also congested. DeFi users were unable to redeem and borrow in time, and the forced liquidation was triggered due to the inability to replenish the positions in time, causing considerable losses to the users on it.
As we all know, Ethereum relies on the consumption of GAS to complete its economic operation. Every step of the chain requires the consumption of GAS. The miners will determine the order of transactions based on the price of the GAS fee. From Mar. 12 to 13, due to a large number of transactions such as transfers, replenishment, deposit, and withdrawal of users on the chain, the Ethereum GAS fee increased to 10 times of the usual, and the GAS fee was once as high as 1 ETH to successfully package transactions. The high handling fee restrains the demand for transactions. However, the value growth of DeFi comes from frequent transaction activities on the chain. It says that the high GAS fee has limited the upper bound of the value of Ethereum DeFi. ETH can only pay the GAS fee. Any ERC20 token issued on it cannot achieve this function, setting a bar for new users, and DeFi’s dependence on ETH, further restricting DeFi’s free transactions.

Your eyes are on the passive income, but the hackers are eyeing your principal.

“If you transfer Bitcoin to an Ethereum-based platform, you must pay attention to security issues, because the security of the two blockchains of Bitcoin and Ethereum is not the same. Although Ethereum has advantages and flexibility, the investment in security does not seem to be enough. This means that you may encounter various risks, such as a sudden increase in the gas price which leads to other related problems. All of these will cause you to lose part or even all of your investment funds.” Said by Andreas Antonopoulos, a well-known KOL in the cryptocurrency industry, made the above evaluation of Ethereum-based DeFi.
Why is there a vast hidden danger in Ethereum’s DeFi? The first thing to know is that when an ERC20 token is issued, an ERC20 contract is created. This ERC20 contract defines some necessary interfaces, which are mainly used for bookkeeping. But this ERC20 contract is a contract subordinate to Ethereum, and the authority of this contract is different from Ethereum itself.
Let’s introduce in detail, what the difference between native ETH and other ERC20 tokens is on the DeFi products of Ethereum.
If you use Ethereum’s native token ETH, the operation is simple. As long as the ETH is transferred to the contract of the target DeFi application, the contract operation will be the same as when we use cash to invest in stocks or wealth management products. No other operations are required.
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However, the operation of tokens minted using ERC20 contracts is very different from native ETH, regardless of whether the tokens minted by these ERC20 contracts are well-known. Before trading, the ERC20 contract first authorizes the DeFi platform’s contract to transfer a specified number of ERC20 tokens on the account, such as USDT, USDC, or WBTC. After approval, the DeFi contract is called to transfer money. The intuitive understanding is to avoid frequent password input in small transactions, we authorized Paypal to open a password-free payment, so that the payment can be directly deducted during consumption. It sounds convenient, but is it that good?


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There is a crucial problem here: if the DeFi contract is malicious during the approval process, this DeFi contract has the right to transfer all the ERC20 tokens on our account to any account. It is similar to that we authorize Paypal to perform a password-free operation of the balance, but if a hacker attacked Paypal successfully, this hacker could transfer all our money to his account. Similar things have happened before.
There is a famous project called Bancor, which used to rely on the type of authorization contract for ERC20 processing. However, there was a bug in the contract that allowed the contract to transfer the tokens in the user’s wallet to any hacker designated address after the user was authorized, which caused a loss of almost 100,000 US dollars.
The loss was not so significant because it occurred in the early stage of DeFi development. If it happens today that the DeFi asset scale on Ethereum already reached hundreds of millions, it would cause severe damage to the entire Ethereum ecosystem and the development of DeFi.
Therefore, many problems DeFi met were due to the imperfect design of the ERC20. However, we also observe fewer attacks on native tokens because of the complete authority control and the shorter operation chain. Therefore, to solve this problem, we can just increase the authority of ecological tokens so that they can have the same functions as native tokens. All tokens can become “first-class citizens” in this public chain ecology and enjoy the same convenience.

The next generation of DeFi platform

Many public chain projects, especially Ethereum itself, have, in fact, deeply recognized their own shortcomings and have also proposed new solutions. The fundamental core is to improve processing efficiency and avoid network congestion. Using PoS consensus instead of PoW can improve throughput and reduce packaging cost, which means reducing GAS cost. Of course, improving transaction efficiency and reducing GAS cost will become the primary long-term goals, but this does not enhance the security and usability of DeFi on Ethereum. In our opinion, a mature DeFi platform must have the following characteristics:
High efficiency: Have faster concurrent processing capabilities, which means higher TPS.
Low GAS rate: Lower fees can encourage the DeFi users’ enthusiasm for using it and even stimulate the development of high-frequency trading.
Safer: There are fewer interactive links in the contract, which at least structurally avoids the problems caused by the permission difference, such as the complexity of ERC20 interaction, the lengthening of the operation chain, and the increase of vulnerabilities.
Easier to use: Various types of multi-native tokens can be used to pay transaction fees during the transactions, and there is no need to use designated tokens to pay for that.
Easy to combine: It can support a wide range of contracts, including the combination of different consensuses on the same chain, ledger structures, and other elements. It can even open up other chains, and make DeFi like a real Lego game.

People always want a faster horse until the car appears.

In the QuarkChain mainnet, the multi-native token is the primary function for building the next generation of the DeFi Network. The multi-native token has the same status as QKC in the QuarkChain system. They can call contracts, cross-chain, and pay transaction fees under certain conditions. In addition to being unable to participate in QKC network governance, the multi-native tokens can achieve all of the QKC’s functions, including cross-chain transfers. Most of the non-native asset inconvenience problems faced by Defi can be solved. In the future contract, the functions of the multi-native token will be the same as QKC, eliminating the last barrier to applying multi-native tokens. We will launch our DEX afterward when users genuinely feel the unimpeded DeFi platform on QuarkChain.

The new DeFi world will start with the creation of personalized multi-native tokens.

Ethereum performance and contract security restrictions have affected the development, which is why DeFi will become the leading new field of QuarkChain. After intensive development and testing, the multi-native token function is ready to be officially delivered to the community. The QuarkChain community members can mine their tokens, as well as use them for transfer (including cross-sharding transfer), payment of fees, and directly call smart contracts very soon. All the users can experience the convenience and innovation that the multi-native token brings to the blockchain system in conjunction with the DEX we will soon launch.
To let everyone experience the security and ease of use of the next generation of DeFi we bring, QuarkChain will launch five DeFi-related products in August. These products are expected to be launched one after another from this week. Please stay tuned with us!


Learn more about QuarkChain multi-native token:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?list=PLKGfzFVHyMzGeV78paQ2qsmlaTyCssmfs&v=-at4Dmbn11M&feature=emb_title

Read more on the next generation of the DeFi network:

https://medium.com/quarkchain-official/building-the-next-generation-of-defi-network-9a5582d487d6
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Filecoin | Development Status and Mining Progress

Author: Gamals Ahmed, CoinEx Business Ambassador
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A decentralized storage network that transforms cloud storage into an account market. Miners obtain the integrity of the original protocol by providing data storage and / or retrieval. On the contrary, customers pay miners to store or distribute data and retrieve it.
Filecoin announced, that there will be more delays before its main network is officially launched.
Filecoin developers postponed the release date of their main network to late July to late August 2020.
As mentioned in a recent announcement, the Filecoin team said that the initiative completed the first round of the internal protocol security audit. Platform developers claim that the results of the review showed that they need to make several changes to the protocol’s code base before performing the second stage of the software testing process.
Created by Protocol Labs, Filecoin was developed using File System (IPFS), which is a peer-to-peer data storage network. Filecoin will allow users to trade storage space in an open and decentralized market.
Filecoin developers implemented one of the largest cryptocurrency sales in 2017. They have privately obtained over $ 200 million from professional or accredited investors, including many institutional investors.
The main network was slated to launch last month, but in February 2020, the Philly Queen development team delayed the release of the main network between July 15 and July 17, 2020.
They claimed that the outbreak of the Coronavirus (COVID-19) in China was the main cause of the delay. The developers now say that they need more time to solve the problems found during a recent codecase audit.
The Filecoin team noted the following:
“We have drafted a number of protocol changes to ensure that building our major network launch is safe and economically sound.” The project developers will add them to two different implementations of Filecoin (Lotus and go-filecoin) in the coming weeks.
Filecoin developers conducted a survey to allow platform community members to cast their votes on three different launch dates for Testnet Phase 2 and mainnet.
The team reported that the community gave their votes. Based on the vote results, the Filecoin team announced a “conservative” estimate that the second phase of the network test should begin by May 11, 2020. The main Filecoin network may be launched sometime between July 20 and August 21, 2020.
The updates to the project can be found on the Filecoin Road Map.
Filecoin developers stated:
“This option will make us get the most important protocol changes first, and then implement the rest as protocol updates during testnet.” Filecoin is back down from the final test stage.
Another filecoin decentralized storage network provider launched its catalytic test network, the final stage of the storage network test that supports the blockchain.
In a blog post on her website, Filecoin said she will postpone the last test round until August. The company also announced a calibration period from July 20 to August 3 to allow miners to test their mining settings and get an idea of how competition conditions affected their rewards.
Filecoin had announced earlier last month that the catalytic testnet test would precede its flagship launch. The delay in the final test also means that the company has returned the main launch window between August 31 and September 21.
Despite the lack of clear incentives for miners and multiple delays, Filecoin has succeeded in attracting huge interest, especially in China. Investors remained highly speculating on the network’s mining hardware and its premium price.
Mining in Filecoin
In most blockchain protocols, “miners” are network participants who do the work necessary to promote and maintain the blockchain. To provide these services, miners are compensated in the original cryptocurrency.
Mining in Filecoin works completely differently — instead of contributing to computational power, miners contribute storage capacity to use for dealing with customers looking to store data.
Filecoin will contain several types of miners:
Storage miners responsible for storing files and data on the network. Miners retrieval, responsible for providing quick tubes for file recovery. Miners repair to be carried out.
Storage miners are the heart of the network. They earn Filecoin by storing data for clients, and computerizing cipher directories to check storage over time. The probability of earning the reward reward and transaction fees is proportional to the amount of storage that the Miner contributes to the Filecoin network, not the hash power.
Retriever miners are the veins of the network. They earn Filecoin by winning bids and mining fees for a specific file, which is determined by the market value of the said file size. Miners bandwidth and recovery / initial transaction response time will determine its ability to close recovery deals on the network.
The maximum bandwidth of the recovery miners will determine the total amount of deals that it can enter into.
In the current implementation, the focus is mostly on storage miners, who sell storage capacity for FIL.

Hardware recommendations

The current system specifications recommended for running the miner are:
Compared to the hardware requirements for running a validity checker, these standards are much higher — although they definitely deserve it. Since these will not increase in the presumed future, the money spent on Filecoin mining hardware will provide users with many years of reliable service, and they pay themselves many times. Think of investing as a small business for cloud storage. To launch a model on the current data hosting model, it will cost millions of dollars in infrastructure and logistics to get started. With Filecoin, you can do the same for a few thousand dollars.
Proceed to mining
Deals are the primary function of the Filecoin network, and it represents an agreement between a client and miners for a “storage” contract.
Once the customer decides to have a miner to store based on the available capacity, duration and price required, he secures sufficient funds in a linked portfolio to cover the total cost of the deal. The deal is then published once the mine accepts the storage agreement. By default, all Filecoin miners are set to automatically accept any deal that meets their criteria, although this can be disabled for miners who prefer to organize their deals manually.
After the deal is published, the customer prepares the data for storage and then transfers it to the miner. Upon receiving all the data, the miner fills in the data in a sector, closes it, and begins to provide proofs to the chain. Once the first confirmation is obtained, the customer can make sure the data is stored correctly, and the deal has officially started.
Throughout the deal, the miner provides continuous proofs to the chain. Clients gradually pay with money they previously closed. If there is missing or late evidence, the miner is punished. More information about this can be found in the Runtime, Cut and Penalties section of this page.
At Filecoin, miners earn two different types of rewards for their efforts: storage fees and reward prevention.
Storage fees are the fees that customers pay regularly after reaching a deal, in exchange for storing data. This fee is automatically deposited into the withdrawal portfolio associated with miners while they continue to perform their duties over time, and is locked for a short period upon receipt.
Block rewards are large sums given to miners calculated on a new block. Unlike storage fees, these rewards do not come from a linked customer; Instead, the new FIL “prints” the network as an inflationary and incentive measure for miners to develop the chain. All active miners on the network have a chance to get a block bonus, their chance to be directly proportional to the amount of storage space that is currently being contributed to the network.
Duration of operation, cutting and penalties
“Slashing” is a feature found in most blockchain protocols, and is used to punish miners who fail to provide reliable uptime or act maliciously against the network.
In Filecoin, miners are susceptible to two different types of cut: storage error cut, unanimously reduce error.
Storage Error Reduction is a term used to include a wider range of penalties, including error fees, sector penalties, and termination fees. Miners must pay these penalties if they fail to provide reliability of the sector or decide to leave the network voluntarily.
An error fee is a penalty that a miner incurs for each non-working day. Sector punishment: A penalty incurred by a miner of a disrupted sector for which no error was reported before the WindowPoSt inspection.
The sector will pay an error fee after the penalty of the sector once the error is discovered.
Termination Fee: A penalty that a miner incurs when a sector is voluntary or involuntarily terminated and removed from the network.
Cutting consensus error is the penalty that a miner incurs for committing consensus errors. This punishment applies to miners who have acted maliciously against the network consensus function.
Filecoin miners
Eight of the top 10 Felticoin miners are Chinese investors or companies, according to the blockchain explorer, while more companies are selling cloud mining contracts and distributed file sharing system hardware. CoinDesk’s Wolfe Chao wrote: “China’s craze for Filecoin may have been largely related to the long-standing popularity of crypto mining in the country overall, which is home to about 65% of the computing power on Bitcoin at discretion.”
With Filecoin approaching the launch of the mainnet blocknet — after several delays since the $ 200 million increase in 2017 — Chinese investors are once again speculating strongly about network mining devices and their premium prices.
Since Protocol Labs, the company behind Filecoin, released its “Test Incentives” program on June 9 that was scheduled to start in a week’s time, more than a dozen Chinese companies have started selling cloud mining contracts and hardware — despite important details such as economics Mining incentives on the main network are still endless.
Sales volumes to date for each of these companies can range from half a million to tens of millions of dollars, according to self-reported data on these platforms that CoinDesk has watched and interviews with several mining hardware manufacturers.
Filecoin’s goal is to build a distributed storage network with token rewards to spur storage hosting as a way to drive wider adoption. Protocol Labs launched a test network in December 2019. But the tokens mined in the testing environment so far are not representative of the true silicon coin that can be traded when the main network is turned on. Moreover, the mining incentive economics on testnet do not represent how final block rewards will be available on the main network.
However, data from Blockecoin’s blocknetin testnet explorers show that eight out of 10 miners with the most effective mining force on testnet are currently Chinese miners.
These eight miners have about 15 petabytes (PB) of effective storage mining power, accounting for more than 85% of the total test of 17.9 petable. For the context, 1 petabyte of hard disk storage = 1000 terabytes (terabytes) = 1 million gigabytes (GB).
Filecoin craze in China may be closely related to the long-standing popularity of crypt mining in the country overall, which is home to about 65% of the computing power on Bitcoin by estimation. In addition, there has been a lot of hype in China about foreign exchange mining since 2018, as companies promote all types of devices when the network is still in development.
“Encryption mining has always been popular in China,” said Andy Tien, co-founder of 1475, one of several mining hardware manufacturers in Philquin supported by prominent Chinese video indicators such as Fenbushi and Hashkey Capital.
“Even though the Velikoyen mining process is more technologically sophisticated, the idea of mining using hard drives instead of specialized machines like Bitcoin ASIC may be a lot easier for retailers to understand,” he said.
Meanwhile, according to Feixiaohao, a Chinese service comparable to CoinMarketCap, nearly 50 Chinese crypto exchanges are often somewhat unknown with some of the more well-known exchanges including Gate.io and Biki — have listed trading pairs for Filecoin currency contracts for USDT.
In bitcoin mining, at the current difficulty level, one segment per second (TH / s) fragmentation rate is expected to generate around 0.000008 BTC within 24 hours. The higher the number of TH / s, the greater the number of bitcoins it should be able to produce proportionately. But in Filecoin, the efficient mining force of miners depends on the amount of data stamped on the hard drive, not the total size of the hard drive.
To close data in the hard drive, the Filecoin miner still needs processing power, i.e. CPU or GPU as well as RAM. More powerful processors with improved software can confine data to the hard drive more quickly, so miners can combine more efficient mining energy faster on a given day.
As of this stage, there appears to be no transparent way at the network level for retail investors to see how much of the purchased hard disk drive was purchased which actually represents an effective mining force.
The U.S.-based Labs Protocol was behind Filecoin’s initial coin offer for 2017, which raised an astonishing $ 200 million.
This was in addition to a $ 50 million increase in private investment supported by notable venture capital projects including Sequoia, Anderson Horowitz and Union Square Ventures. CoinDk’s parent company, CoinDk, has also invested in Protocol Labs.
After rounds of delay, Protocol Protocols said in September 2019 that a testnet launch would be available around December 2019 and the main network would be rolled out in the first quarter of 2020.
The test started as promised, but the main network has been delayed again and is now expected to launch in August 2020. What is Filecoin mining process?
Filecoin mainly consists of three parts: the storage market (the chain), the blockecin Filecoin, and the search market (under the chain). Storage and research market in series and series respectively for security and efficiency. For users, the storage frequency is relatively low, and the security requirements are relatively high, so the storage process is placed on the chain. The retrieval frequency is much higher than the storage frequency when there is a certain amount of data. Given the performance problem in processing data on the chain, the retrieval process under the chain is performed. In order to solve the security issue of payment in the retrieval process, Filecoin adopts the micro-payment strategy. In simple terms, the process is to split the document into several copies, and every time the user gets a portion of the data, the corresponding fee is paid. Types of mines corresponding to Filecoin’s two major markets are miners and warehousers, among whom miners are primarily responsible for storing data and block packages, while miners are primarily responsible for data query. After the stable operation of the major Filecoin network in the future, the mining operator will be introduced, who is the main responsible for data maintenance.
In the initial release of Filecoin, the request matching mechanism was not implemented in the storage market and retrieval market, but the takeover mechanism was adopted. The three main parts of Filecoin correspond to three processes, namely the stored procedure, retrieval process, packaging and reward process. The following figure shows the simplified process and the income of the miners:
The Filecoin mining process is much more complicated, and the important factor in determining the previous mining profit is efficient storage. Effective storage is a key feature that distinguishes Filecoin from other decentralized storage projects. In Filecoin’s EC consensus, effective storage is similar to interest in PoS, which determines the likelihood that a miner will get the right to fill, that is, the proportion of miners effectively stored in the entire network is proportional to final mining revenue.
It is also possible to obtain higher effective storage under the same hardware conditions by improving the mining algorithm. However, the current increase in the number of benefits that can be achieved by improving the algorithm is still unknown.
It seeks to promote mining using Filecoin Discover
Filecoin announced Filecoin Discover — a step to encourage miners to join the Filecoin network. According to the company, Filecoin Discover is “an ever-growing catalog of numerous petabytes of public data covering literature, science, art, and history.” Miners interested in sharing can choose which data sets they want to store, and receive that data on a drive at a cost. In exchange for storing this verified data, miners will earn additional Filecoin above the regular block rewards for storing data. Includes the current catalog of open source data sets; ENCODE, 1000 Genomes, Project Gutenberg, Berkley Self-driving data, more projects, and datasets are added every day.
Ian Darrow, Head of Operations at Filecoin, commented on the announcement:
“Over 2.5 quintillion bytes of data are created every day. This data includes 294 billion emails, 500 million tweets and 64 billion messages on social media. But it is also climatology reports, disease tracking maps, connected vehicle coordinates and much more. It is extremely important that we maintain data that will serve as the backbone for future research and discovery”.
Miners who choose to participate in Filecoin Discover may receive hard drives pre-loaded with verified data, as well as setup and maintenance instructions, depending on the company. The Filecoin team will also host the Slack (fil-Discover-support) channel where miners can learn more.
Filecoin got its fair share of obstacles along the way. Last month Filecoin announced a further delay before its main network was officially launched — after years of raising funds.
In late July QEBR (OTC: QEBR) announced that it had ceded ownership of two subsidiaries in order to focus all of the company’s resources on building blockchain-based mining operations.
The QEBR technology team previously announced that it has proven its system as a Filecoin node valid with CPU, GPU, bandwidth and storage compatibility that meets all IPFS guidelines. The QEBR test system is connected to the main Filecoin blockchain and the already mined filecoin coin has already been tested.
“The disclosure of Sheen Boom and Jihye will allow our team to focus only on the upcoming global launch of Filecoin. QEBR branch, Shenzhen DZD Digital Technology Ltd. (“ DZD “), has a strong background in blockchain development, extraction Data, data acquisition, data processing, data technology research. We strongly believe Filecoin has the potential to be a leading blockchain-based cryptocurrency and will make every effort to make QEBR an important player when Mainecoin mainnet will be launched soon”.
IPFS and Filecoin
Filecoin and IPFS are complementary protocols for storing and sharing data in a decentralized network. While users are not required to use Filecoin and IPFS together, the two combined are working to resolve major failures in the current web infrastructure.
IPFS
It is an open source protocol that allows users to store and transmit verifiable data with each other. IPFS users insist on data on the network by installing it on their own device, to a third-party cloud service (known as Pinning Services), or through community-oriented systems where a group of individual IPFS users share resources to ensure the content stays live.
The lack of an integrated catalytic mechanism is the challenge Filecoin hopes to solve by allowing users to catalyze long-term distributed storage at competitive prices through the storage contract market, while maintaining the efficiency and flexibility that the IPFS network provides.
Using IPFS
In IPFS, the data is hosted by the required data installation nodes. For data to persist while the user node is offline, users must either rely on their other peers to install their data voluntarily or use a central install service to store data.
Peer-to-peer reliance caching data may be a good thing as one or multiple organizations share common files on an internal network, or where strong social contracts can be used to ensure continued hosting and preservation of content in the long run. Most users in an IPFS network use an installation service.
Using Filecoin
The last option is to install your data in a decentralized storage market, such as Filecoin. In Filecoin’s structure, customers make regular small payments to store data when a certain availability, while miners earn those payments by constantly checking the integrity of this data, storing it, and ensuring its quick recovery. This allows users to motivate Filecoin miners to ensure that their content will be live when it is needed, a distinct advantage of relying only on other network users as required using IPFS alone.
Filecoin, powered by IPFS
It is important to know that Filecoin is built on top of IPFS. Filecoin aims to be a very integrated and seamless storage market that takes advantage of the basic functions provided by IPFS, they are connected to each other, but can be implemented completely independently of each other. Users do not need to interact with Filecoin in order to use IPFS.
Some advantages of sharing Filecoin with IPFS:
Of all the decentralized storage projects, Filecoin is undoubtedly the most interested, and IPFS has been running stably for two years, fully demonstrating the strength of its core protocol.
Filecoin’s ability to obtain market share from traditional central storage depends on end-user experience and storage price. Currently, most Filecoin nodes are posted in the IDC room. Actual deployment and operation costs are not reduced compared to traditional central cloud storage, and the storage process is more complicated.
PoRep and PoSt, which has a large number of proofs of unknown operation, are required to cause the actual storage cost to be so, in the early days of the release of Filecoin. The actual cost of storing data may be higher than the cost of central cloud storage, but the initial storage node may reduce the storage price in order to obtain block rewards, which may result in the actual storage price lower than traditional central cloud storage.
In the long term, Filecoin still needs to take full advantage of its P2P storage, convert storage devices from specialization to civil use, and improve its algorithms to reduce storage costs without affecting user experience. The storage problem is an important problem to be solved in the blockchain field, so a large number of storage projects were presented at the 19th Web3 Summit. IPFS is an important part of Web3 visibility. Its development will affect the development of Web3 to some extent. Likewise, Web3 development somewhat determines the future of IPFS. Filecoin is an IPFS-based storage class project initiated by IPFS. There is no doubt that he is highly expected.
Resources :
  1. https://www.coindesk.com/filecoin-pushes-back-final-testing-phase-announces-calibration-period-for-miners
  2. https://docs.filecoin.io/mine/#types-of-miners https://www.nasdaq.com/articles/inside-the-craze-for-filecoin-crypto-mining-in-china-2020-07-12؟amp
  3. https://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/qebr-streamlines-holdings-to-concentrate-on-filecoin-development-and-mining-301098731.html
  4. https://www.crowdfundinsider.com/2020/05/161200-filecoin-seeks-to-boost-mining-with-filecoin-discove
  5. https://zephyrnet.com/filecoin-seeks-to-boost-mining-with-filecoin-discove
  6. https://docs.filecoin.io/introduction/ipfs-and-filecoin/#filecoin-powered-by-ipfs
submitted by CoinEx_Institution to filecoin [link] [comments]

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FINFINE - HIGH FREQUENCE TRADING - YouTube

We help people become financially successful and financially achieve ones goals. If you want to invest in yourself, invest in your future,if you think you ar... March 26 -- Former CFTC Commissioner Bart Chilton discusses high-frequency trading, and responds to comments made by Michael Lewis, the author of ''Flash Boy... FinFine’s high-frequency trading system is expected to promote crypto-market liquidity, as well as provide investors and FinFine Ltd. with stable incomes; an... Here is the demo of Flow Trade a trading software that can help you profit by tracking the high frequency trading algorithm for buying or selling action. You... "60 Minutes" correspondent Steve Kroft revealed Sunday night how a few stock market insiders are making billions in high-frequency trading. Kroft spoke with ...

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